Political Relations between Saudi-U. S. Relations, 1931-1991 The diplomatic relations of Saudi-U. S. political were formed by the influence of technological, political, military, and commercial interests and understandings developed during and following the Second World War. King Abd Al Aziz was recognized as ruler of Hejaz and Nejd in 1931. But only after 1942, through a resident diplomatic representative of U. S in Saudi, the relations between United States began to propagate its roots. The U. S. -Saudi relations from early 1930s through 1945, were confined to the oil exploration indulgence with the California Arabian Standard Oil Company [CASOC, which further developed as today’s Aramco.
When CASOC’s discovered another oil reserve in 1938 in eastern Saudi, there aroused a need for establishing bilateral relations between Saudi and U. S to manage and to defend the oil production with the indulgence of private and public U. S. efforts. During this period itself, Saudi with the help of U. S has come out from the external economical and political influence of United Kingdom.
The meeting between President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and King Abd al Aziz on February 14, 1945 is considered as the noteworthy start up for the U. S. Saudi relations by many observers. Through bilateral military cooperation during the mid 1940, U. S. has offered military at Dhahran and also extended support for planning and training assistance . This has further strengthened the relations.
The bilateral commercial and economic relations during this period involve the oil exports, Aramco operations and oil exports, U. S. contractors helping in developing the Kingdom infrastructure and U. S. Consultation in establishing the Saudi financial system. There were establishment of common national security objectives between Saudi Arabia and the United States from the 1950s onward. Though these objectives tried to over come some regional issues, they were severely tested between conflicts in 1948, 1967, and 1973 concerning Arab-Israeli conflicts. The administrations of U. S presidents like Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon kept a note that Saudi kingdom to make a friendly relation with other nationalist and socialist governments in the region.
However, the Arab- Israeli war in 1973 put the U. S. Saudi relations in strain and effected the political and economic dynamics of the relationship. When U. S supported Israel during the was, Saudi responded by instituting a restriction on oil production and oil exports. This instance produced inflation in the U. S which in turn created speculation in the U. S foreign investment. The U. S military seized the oil fields in the Arab countries including Saudi Arabia. In order to regain the economic stability, both Saudi and U. S started working out on the maintenance of bilateral relations.
This realm of second phase of agreements on bilateral relations were based on shared opposition to Communism, renewed military cooperation, U. S. securities, industrial expansion and recycling of Saudi petrodollars to the United States via Saudi investment in infrastructure. Saudi supported anticommunist causes around the world during the Carter and Reagan Administrations.
Also during 1979, the Iranian revolution and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan aided the constant collaboration of U. S. and Saudi for decade. Many shared policies to support the activities like - anti-Soviet mujahidin fighters and the war against Saddam Hussein were developed during the period. Also during the Persian Gulf war in 1991, Saudi hosted U. S military troops and military equipment to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait. However, such support and military relations were cited as reasons to provoke the Saudi opposition figures and extremists, like Al Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden, and led them to attack U. S. and other parts of the world including Saudi Arabia.