Buyer decision processes are the decision making processes undertaken by consumers in regard to a potential market transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service. More generally, decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. Common examples include shopping and deciding what to eat. Decision making is said to be a psychological construct. This means that although we can never “see” a decision, we can infer from observable behavior that a decision has been made.
Therefore we conclude that a psychological event that we call “decision making” has occurred. It is a construction that imputes commitment to action. That is, based on observable actions, we assume that people have made a commitment to effect the action. In general there are three ways of analyzing consumer buying decisions. They are: * Economic models – These models are largely quantitative and are based on the assumptions of rationality and near perfect knowledge. The consumer is seen to maximize their utility. See consumer theory. Game theory can also be used in some circumstances.
* Psychological models – These models concentrate on psychological and cognitive processes such as motivation and need recognition. They are qualitative rather than quantitative and build on sociological factors like cultural influences and family influences.
* Consumer behavior models – These are practical models used by marketers. They typically blend both economic and psychological models. Neuroscience has become both a useful tool and a source of theory development and testing in buyer decision-making research, and using neuroimaging devices in order to investigate consumer behavior developed under the name of Neuromarketing. What is going on inside the head of the consumer as measured by various neuroimaging and biological correlates like genes and hormones can provide new insights and new ways to test theory, so this is a great opportunity for the decision-making researcher. There are 5 stages which a consumer often goes through when he/she around their Purchase. These stages also exist because of normal human psychology. These 5 stages are:
* Problem/Need Recognition- This is in general the first stage in which the consumer recognizes that what essentially is the problem or need and hence accordingly a consumer can identify the product or kind of product which would be required by the consumer.
* Information Search- In information search, the consumer searches about the product which would satisfy the need which has been recognized by the consumer in the stage previous to this one * Evaluation of Alternatives – In this stage, the consumer evaluates the different alternatives which the consumer comes across, when the consumer was searching for information. Generally in the information search the consumer comes across quite a few products and thus now the consumer has to evaluate and understand which product would be properly suited for the consumer.
Purchase-After the consumer has evaluated all the options and would be having the intention to buy any product; there could be now only two thingswhich might just change the decision of the consumer of buying the product that is what the other peers of the consumer think of the product and any unforeseen circumstances. Unforeseen circumstances for example in this case could be financial losses which led to not buying of the product.
Post Purchase Behavior-After the purchase the consumer might just go through post purchase dissonance in which the consumer feels that buying the other product would be better. But a company should really take care of it, taking care of post purchase dissonance doesn’t only spread good words for the product but also increases the chance of frequent repurchase. Nobel laureate Herbert A. Simon sees economic decision making as a vain attempt to be rational. He claims (in 1947 and 1957) that if a complete analysis is to be done, a decision will be immensely complex. He also says that peoples’ information processing ability is very limited. The assumption of a perfectly rational economic actor is unrealistic. Often we are influenced by emotional and non-rational considerations. When we try to be rational we are at best only partially successful.
At present time Mobile phone become the basic needs of human being. The basic purpose of mobile phones is to communicate with others but now people want more features in a mobile phone like audio, video ,FM radio, torch light, Bluetooth, MMS, Email, Games etc. I passed five stages of buying decision process in the time of buying Sony Xperia V mobile phone. Which are:
1. Problem recognitionSamsung i550 was the existing mobile phone of mine has the features of voice call, SMS, torchlight etc. but it has not the features of sending MMS, Bluetooth, Internet, Fm radio, video and audio, E-mail, 3G, Video Call, Social Network Software. As a result I feel a need of purchasing a multimedia mobile which has the feature of audio, video, Internet, MMS and Fm radio, E-mail, 3G, Video Call, and Social Network Software.
2. Information searchAs I identify the need of purchasing multimedia mobiles so then I start searching about the brand which will satisfy my need at a reasonable price.
From my family and friends and also through newspaper I found that mobile brand in Bangladesh are: Nokia, Samsung ,LG, Sony Ericssion, Sony, HTC, Apple, Motorola, and also some other Chinese and Indian mobiles like Maximus, Karbonn, Symphony, Micromax, Sprint, Cellone, Kingstar Walton etc.
3. Evaluation of AlternativesThen I try to evaluate the mobile brands. As my budget for purchasing mobile phone is tk.32000 so that I am searching Nokia, Samsung, LG, Sony Ericssion, Sony, HTC, Motorola, Apple.
But Nokia Use windows Operating System so I think that is not favorable for me so I go for Samsung or Sony or HTC, But Not for Apple or China Phone.
Sony Make some innovative design for their cell phone and . So it became tough for me to make a purchase decision among these brands. So I want to evaluate all the brands based on four attributes of: Good looking, sustainability, price and big screen. I want to evaluate all the brands