I. Executive Summary Bride-Buying is a new practice that has developed over the last couple of decades in India. It is the practice of selling women into marriage against their will. Haryana, Jharkand, and Punjab are the region or state that still doing the Bride Buying activities which is considered illegal. The objectives of this report are to analyze the structuring decision problems of reducing Bride-buying in India and to describing the necessary steps in undertaking the decision problem structuring.
This report using The PrOACT decision making model which is provides a systematic approach for making decisions. It consists of eight elements that when worked through systematically will help to make better decisions. For further method, we use SMART analysis. Refer to PrOACT frame, Poverty, Sex Ratio Gap, Gender Issues, and Low Educations are the main factors why it happens. The problem here is how to reduce the Bride-Buying practice in India. The objectives are how to Reduce Bride-Buying by create Gender equality; Redistribution of the population; Short time implementation; Cost Efficiency.
We are here try to act as Indian Government, which comes with many alternatives. Those are implementing the Education (A); Create job vacancies (B); Make a Woman rights and Laws (C); Build a Safe house (D); and Transmigration (E). For the consequences, we use SMART Analysis to trade off. And comes with Education as the solution, since Education have lower cost and higher benefits than Create job vacancies, therefore Education are preferred. II. Introduction II. 1 Background India as one of the developing country, still using one of the old tradition, bride buying to the life of of its people.
In Haryana, Jharkand, and Punjab are the region or state that still doing the Bride Buying activities (tribuneindia. com, 2007), which is considered illegal. Why is Bride Buying illegal? According to CNN-IBN (2006), in Bride Buying activity, the women sold, bought, raped, married off without any consent. The women treated like a property that could be trade or sold to fulfill the needs of others. In the year of 2012, of course this kind of activity that leads to human trafficking being concerned by the people of the world.
The price to sell and buy the bride starts at 4,000 Rupee, to 30,000 Rupee, or Rp. 690,000 – Rp. 5,000,000. The parents of the bride (women) could get 500 to 1,000 Rupee (Rp. 85,000 – Rp. 170,000) (BBC News, April 2006). With that price, anyone could marry a woman, could trade their daughters for a son, could buy a houseworker, and not to mention to get a sex slave. The roots of Bride Buying activity is actually an old tradition that existed since decades ago. According to Punjabi writer, the bride buying began when the arrive of Mughals.
The Mughals decorated the women to be sold with the ornaments (Kirpal Kazak, 2007). The activity if bride buying decilned with the rise of the ration for Male and Female in India on 1911. But, the ratio of Male and Female begin to decline in 2001, and made the trade and bride buying activity back on track, especially in the life of the poor people in India. The parents who sell and trade their daughters think that having a son brought more benefit than to have a daughter, because they can make the sons to work and bring more money to the parents.
(BBC News, April 2006). It’s the modern day slavery of our times right under the nose of the world’s largest democracy. Many academic readings and media reports have told stories of women who were sold off as nothing more than baby producing sexual commodities that don’t enjoy the status of anything than a housemaid, even though in official records and claims, she would rightfully be the wife of the husband. But there are the exceptional cases of women who have found domestic bliss even in this artificial arrangement of sorts.
And why we deem this ‘artificial’ is only because such a match would not be approved in the same regions for the proximity of kinship or the difference in religion leading to extreme measures murder of the estranged couple in the name of ‘honour killing’. Society turns stranger as it becomes stringer with loosely tied traditions of caste and gender barriers. II. 2 Objectives The objectives of this report are: 1. To analyze the structuring decision problems of reducing Bride-buying in India. 2. To describing the necessary steps in undertaking the decision problem structuring. II.
3 Scope of Work As the title implies, the report mainly focuses on analyze the structuring decision problems of Bride-buying in India. The report detailed on describing the necessary steps in undertaking the decision problem structuring. II. 4 Methodology This report using The PrOACT decision making model which is provides a systematic approach for making decisions. It consists of eight elements that when worked through systematically will help to make better decisions. The term PrOACT is an acronym of the five core elements of the decision model: Problem, Objectives, Alternatives, Consequences and Tradeoffs.
The remaining three elements help clarify decisions in volatile or evolving environments: Uncertainty, Risk Tolerance and Linked Decisions. The PrOACT decision making model is an excellent framework for guiding important decisions. For further method, we use SMART analysis. We prefer this analysis because the output of this process is more informative. Its additional information is available and important for sensitive analysis. III. Problem Construction A good decision comes from the right decision problem.
The frame of decision problem drives everything else in the decision making process. It determines the alternatives which are consider as well as the way we evaluate them. A simple Google search on ‘bride buying India’ gives us a mix of results that indicate the human rights violating practice of bride buying in Northwestern states of India, matrimonial sites as well as links to designer bridal sarees and jewelry. This dichotomy itself explains a lot about how tradition and patriarchy are intertwined with the booming economy in our so-called modern Indian society.
From what we found, the practice of bride buying is not very recluse from the society today. We know that it’s a vicious cycle and relationship between the gender bias within patriarchy and poverty in India, although patriarchy does not have a stronger root or causality in poverty. Most of us know the stories and modus operandi to how it happens. The archaic system of patriarchy that propagate heavy dowries to be incurred for daughters’ marriages and desire for a long lineage, even to maintain the caste purity in the line, leads to a strong preference for the male child.
Female babies are either killed in the foetus or killed or thrown in the garbage shortly after their birth. With the low social and economy level in India, not to mention the inbalance ratio of Male and Female in India, the Bride Buying activity become one of the major illegal activity for the poor people gain money to live their daily life (BBC News, April 2006). Also with the low education level, there are so many poor family in India realize that the activity brings fatal damage to the moral and integrity.
As Dalip Kaur Tiwana says the ritual of bride-buying was limited to the poor sections of society. Mr Bhupinder Singh, Head of the Sociology Department at Punjabi University, says that in poor families, only one son used to be married. Besides poverty, the other reason to get only one son married was to avoid the division of landed property. 1 1 Campaign Again Bride Trafficking (INDIA). 2012. “Bride Buying an old practice in North India” retrieved September 1, 2012. http://traffickinginindia. blogspot. com/2012/02/bride-buying-old-practicein-north. html IV. Objective Identification
Objective identification was important things, because it form the basis for evaluating any alternatives. In other words, objectives become the decision criteria. In addition, to making sure the decisions gets us where us want to go, objectives also guide the decision making process. Objective helps us to determine what information we need; justify our decision to others; and determine a decisions importance. • Reducing Bride Buying Activity One of the step as the objective is to reduce the Bride Buying activity by fixing its law and punishment for the people who involve in it.
Bride Buying considered illegal and by giving significant punishment or penalty for the people, could reduce the number of women being sold to the minimum. • Gender Equality Having limited education, make the poor people in India still thinking that Male is more superior than the Female. With that kind of mind set, the people don’t value the Female as much as they respect Male. The people still think that to have better money income, the Male have to work and it’s the Male only who allowed to work. By applying Gender equality to the life of the people in India, the activity of Bride Buying will be decreased.
Because, the women could also work to make a better living for the family. Families in economically less sufficient states of Jharkhand, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam where the farmers haven’t seen industrialization and are either still holding on to their drought struck land or working under a colloquial zamindar. Human trafficking is a more lucrative business than even animal poaching with lesser risks of getting tipped off, as your service is actually considered vital to carrying forward the society to its next generation.
Touts are the fine line in getting the supply to the demand either by tricking girls and their parents of a life where she would be well fed and looked after and mostly by purchasing the girl for a meager price of a couple of single digit thousands. This isn’t fiction but fact that many families would purchase a single bride for more than one son to avoid the distribution of family land and property, not to mention 1:5 becomes more cost effective in the dire state of the ratio. Lessons, however, are not learned and more sons are desired to continue the lineage.
• Re-Distribution of The Population Decades of families and communities killing the girl child has resulted in an entire demographic of young girls and women missing in many villages in the Northern states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, which are some of the most key places. Hence, in sexual frustration and desperation and of course, the fear of their family being wiped out of the face of existence (which is what they attempted to save in the first place), they look for brides from poorer states on the Eastern parts of India. This time: caste, religion, ethnicity, color and even age, no bar.
One of the step as an objective solution of Bride Buying activity is by increasing the equitable distribution of the population in India. Make the region or city that isn’t developed to have a progress, so that the education level and the mental of its people also have improvements and realize that the bride buying activity is illegal and brings downfall to their own life. • Short Time Implementation (period) One of the most important step is by doing the objective solution as the steps, by doing it effective immediately with time and cost efficiency. V.
Alternative Identification In order to make a decision, we need to have alternatives to decide upon. It’s important to spend some time to create imaginative alternatives. However, it is also important to make sure the alternatives that have been generated are good. Regardless of how many alternatives, the decision can only be as good as the best alternative. • To give women education for skill and ability to work (A) By giving the education for women in their skill and ability to work, people could appreciate women more and they could see the living proof that women can actually work and help to get more money.
• To give job vacancy for female (women) (B) To give the education and knowing that the job vacancy for women isn’t available also will crush the women’s spirit and confidence. The government and capitalist have to open the vacancy for women, so that the poor people could realize that they could make things work by having a daughter in their family, without have to sell or trade them for sons.
• To make the law to protect the women and give punishment (C) But while we talk about the need for protection officers and ministers to enforce that the laws against sex determination and foeticide as well as human trafficking and infanticide (which is just cold blooded murder, in simpler terms) as well as the ministry of child and women welfare and several NGOs to protect shelter and rehabilitate these women in the society, we need to pay attention to the complexity and be sensitive to the psyche and emotions of women involved here.
Urvashi Butalia1 had written about a similar status of women during the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 in her book, The Other Side of Silence. She wrote that women, who were displaced into the lives of their rapists or families who held them captive on the newly alien side of the border had gradually come to accept them as their permanent abode and found a comfort zone in them, despite the unspeakable tortures and inhuman treatment. A woman’s body becomes the site for violence, honour, retribution and catharsis during times of upheaval and trouble.
A woman’s body is always vulnerable and her mind and emotions invisible and dismissible • To make a safe house for the bride buying victims (D) The women who already become the victim of the bride buying activity will be isolated from their neighborhood and family, that’s why a safe house and shelter sould be made. The women who are under the transaction could also be protected. The victim wouldn’t need to run or think it’s better to work as the bride.
• To socialize the transmigration for population distribution (E) The equation of population distribution also important, since it will bring improvements to the cities or regions that left behind. And give its people a chance to have a better life. VI. Consequences Every alternative that generated its need to understand the consequences of each alternative would have for each of objectives. Using a consequences table is a simple and powerful way to compare the alternatives. In creating consequence descriptions, it’s important to make sure they are accurate, complete, and precise. Otherwise, the risk will make a poor choice.
Objectives Reducing Bride Buying Activity Gender Equality Population Distribution Cost Period Option A Fair Option B Good Option C Fair Option D Worst Option E Fair Excellence Excellence Excellence Good Bad Bad Excellence Worst Good Excellence 500 billion 5 years 700 billion 2 years 862 billion 3 years 600 billion 1 years 1 trillion 4 years VI. Trade-Off Identification Many times, objectives will conflict with each other. As a result, it has to evaluate tradeoffs between the objectives. It will need to sacrifice something from one objective to gain something from another objective.
It can begin to consider tradeoffs by ranking the alternatives for each objective. This can be done using a ranking table. A ranking table is structured the same way as a consequence table, but instead of noting consequence descriptions, put each alternatives rank relative to each other for that objective. A ranking table will often enable to eliminate some of the alternatives outright. In fact, it sometimes even leads directly to the final decision. Objective Reducing Bride Buying Activity Gender Equality Population Distribution Period Weight 60% 15% 10% 15% Education(A) job vacancy for female (B) 95 100 60 20 75 90 90 75
Alternative Transmigration (E) Law for women (C) Safe House (D) 60 20 100 40 40 40 30 60 10 0 0 90 Education(A) 57 15 6 3 Weight x alternative job vacancy for female (B) Transmigration (E) 45 13,5 9 11,25 36 3 10 6 Law for women (C) 24 6 3 9 Safe House (D) 6 0 0 13,5 Total 81 78,75 55 42 19,5 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Education (A) job vacancy for female (B) Transmigration (E) Law for women (C) Safe House (D) The benefit of Law for Women and Safe house is less than Transmigration even thought the cost is quite expensive. so the goverment wouldn’t choose this option.
the alternative that available is Education, Job Vacancy for female, Transmigration. in here event the goverment doesn’t mind about the cost, but the bennefit is less than Education and Job Vacancy for female. So the goverment, wouldn’t choose this one. how about Education and Job Vacancy for female is almost same for the bennefit, but back to our objective the goverment wants something more lower cost. so probably the goverment will choose Education. Conclusion : From those analysis, we choose the Education because is the best Bennefit and lower cost from the other option.
• Assumtion : 1. We are as a india Goverment 2. The data for : • • • amount of money Weight for the alternative Period is refference from the other asian country such as ( China and Indonesia) 3. India Goverment 100% prefer to bennefit , and India goverment willing to pay for more additional bennefit. 4. Cost was showed in objective table but we have ignored the cost because of the dificulties of decision makers have in making judgments about the trade off. References Agal, Renu. April 2006. “India’s: ‘Bride-buying’ country”. BBC News. Retrieved Sept 2, 2012.
Campaign Again Bride Trafficking (INDIA). 2012. “Bride Buying an old practice in North India” retrieved September 1, 2012. http://traffickinginindia. blogspot. com/2012/02/bridebuying-old-practice-in-north. html Dhaliwal, Sarbjit. August 2003. “Bride-buying: an Old Practice in North India”. Tribune News Service, retrieved September 1, 2012. Goodwin, P. & Wright, G. (2009), Decision Analysis form Managerial Judgment (4 Ed. ). – John Wiley & Sons. Sharma, Kavitta and Divya Shah. “Only in India: Cheaper to buy bride than raise daughter”. CNN-IBN, retrieved September 2, 2012.