Birth of Industrial Age

Industrialization changed the daily lives of citizens in the United States in the late 19th Century. The economic changes were due in large part from the nature of the extent of the visions of the inventors and the revolutionary ideas they discovered and set into motion. Throughout the 19th century the United States was the role model regardless of the idea or the invention being displayed.

Canada was also affected as being linked to the United States in many endeavors and geography tied together with the connecting borders. The US also was a more modernized country compared to Canada, making it seem that Canadians followed on the heels and the path of the Americans. In all fairness they did exactly this, because of the Canadian economy being well behind the Americans was always slower. All things changed for the future in the 19th century as things were modernized.

America during the 19th century was industrialized in a sense never before seen in history. The American industrial light and power base exceeded anything Great Britain, France, and Germany combined could muster. The natural resources being abundant gave America endless raw materials needed in industrialization.

This fact combined with the large population of immigrants exiting each arriving ship guaranteed a solid never ending supply of strong eager labor. The spinning Jenny in 1798 by James Hargraeave along with Edward Cartwright’s loom in 1787 change to output and manufacturing and weaving of yarn . The James Watt steam engine further increased the production capabilities of the loom and production of linen and cotton for clothes.

The cotton industry was not the only industry to benefit and advance production 100% the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 completely revolutionized the South. This single invention also reduced the hand consuming task previously done by slaves. The gin enabled fifty times more cotton could be produced in a single day. The need for more slaves was immediately apparent with the world demanding as much cotton as could be produced and it took more slaves to plant grow and pick more cotton. The cotton gin gave the slave industry a new life. The slave states grew exponentially from 1800 to 1860 to (15) fifteen slave states. Cotton was now king in the South.

In 1860 with the advances in technology, politics were impacted, economic interests were paramount and society was racing to the gate to gain every advantage possible. The railroad was undoubtedly one of the most significant and radical invention as it gave the transportation industry a means of transporting goods and services almost anywhere a track could be laid.

The more goods shipped and cheaper meant more need for more machinery to supply more factories to keep up with the increased demand for these manufactured goods. In the 1870’s the railroad construction boom was on, the patent system badly needed was put in place in the late 19th century and inventions were being created many times in chain reactions; i.e. electricity, chemical industry, and the internal combustion engine to name a few.

In 1878, Thomas Edison put his incandescent light bulb to work on the streets of New York City and set a course that would change American history basically overnight. This led to George Westinghouse being inspired to develop a high-voltage power system to power all the light bulbs Edison could create. This production of power in the late 1880’s piqued the interest of money men J.P. Morgan and Henry Villard to purchase his patent and form General Electric Company.

Henry Ford, intrigued by invention of the internal combustion gasoline engine by two German’s put his own idea to work using an assembly line idea to produce his Model T Ford automobile. It would not only spawn future production, but would revolutionize travel over the entire continent. These inventions were the start of all buses, trucks, and yes the airplane in many ways. The money being made and the growth of financial institutions overnight changed the standards of living conditions for the American public. The cost of livings wages being raised through 1889 to 1913 made it possible for the average American working class family to afford a home and provide for their family in comfort.

The advent of mass production, flushable toilets, and an automobile for every home, life was great. Next the growing population ratio of wealth lead to more jobs, more people into the workforce and a new elite middle class. Women now begin pushing for their rights and a cleaner regulated workplace and healthier working conditions. The women begin to replace the children whom up to now had been forced to work at extremely young ages in appalling situations and long unregulated hours. Labor laws were being enacted and enforced by the reformers.

The second wave of the revolution saw men demanding women return to the home as homemakers and back to raising the family. The power of industry had provided new inventions making home keeping an easier task, with canned foods, laundry soap, washing machines, electricity to power them all and to allow better food storage and changes in the way families existed. The modern era was moving an accelerated pace.

The United States was now on top of the totem pole with the factories, workshops; the increased demand for manufactured consumer products along with the unlimited flow of capital the future was wide open. The overall life expectancy had also increased along with the health of the population from such technology as: running water, telephones, automobiles, gas and steam indoor heating, medicines, and antiseptics.

1760 TIME LINE 1908 1760, 1765 , 1787, 1793 ,1798, 1812, 1817, 1819, 1831, 1837 ,1840,1848 ,1859, 1860, 1863 ,1865, 1867, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1875 ,1876 ,1878 ,1881 ,1882 ,1886 ,1888, 1892,1895, 1908 I___________________________________________________________

_________________________________________ 1765- James Watt Steam Engine 1787-Weaving Loom, Ed Cartwright 1793-Coton Gin, Eli Whitney 1798- Spinning Jenny, James Hargraeave 1812- War with Britain 1817-The American Colonization Society formed 1819-cotton was .33 cents a pound 1831- Nat Turner, a slave led the most famous slave revolt in US History 1837-1st panic in cotton market 1840- Liberty party formed 1848-1st convention for women’s rights in New York/ Yale invents pin-tumbler key lock 1850-1st dishwasher invented by Joel Houghton 1859-John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry. 1860- Civil War Begins 1863-Emancipation Proclamation issued By Abraham Lincoln/ Dynamite invented by Alfred Nobel 1865- Civil War Over, Lincoln Assassinated, Slavery abolished 13th Amendment to the US Constitution 1867-typewriter invented by Sholes

1869- Rail Air –piston Brake, George Westinghouse 1870- Standard Oil, John Rockefeller/ Railroad Construction Boom/ Andrew Carnegie Steel Co Founded 1871—Russet Burbank potato was developed, disease resistant, by Luther Burbank 1873—Levi blue jeans invented by Levi Strauss

1875-Oregon Steamship line, Calf Railroad founded, Henry Villard 1876- Custer Killed at Little Bighorn / Bell Patents his telephone one of the most important of all inventions 1878-Electric Light Bulb, Thomas Edison

1881-Power Transformer Invented, Gualard & Gibbs 1886-Multi-Volt power system, Great Berrington, Massachusetts, George Westinghouse/ Coca Cola was invented. 1888-Power meter 1891-Escalator invented by Jesse Reno 1892- New York Railroad, J.P. Morgan/ The zipper is invented for all clothes, by Judson 1895-radio invented by Marconi/ X-Rays invented by Roentgen 1908- Model T Ford assembly Line, Henry Ford 1918-first United States economic depression

References

Craig,A.M.,Graham, W.A., Kagan,D., Ozment, S., & Turner, F.M. (2009). The Heritage of World Civilization. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Volti, Rudi (1999) Cotton Gin. Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Science. New York, New York