Oslo, Norway’s capital, is centrally located in the heart of Scandinavia. Bounded by the fjord and forested hills, Oslo was founded ca 1000. Norway is a country located in Northern Europe on the western and northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering theNorth Sea in southwest and the Skagerrak inlet to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea) in the west and theBarents Sea to the northeast. Norway has a long land border with Sweden to the east, a shorter one with Finland in the northeast and a still shorter border with Russia in the far northeast.
Norway has a very elongated shape, one of the longest and most rugged coastlines in the world, and some 50,000 islands off the extremely indented coastline. The mainland covers 13° latitude, from 58°N to more than 71°N, (Svalbard north to 81°N), and covers the longitude from 5°E in Solund to 31°E in Vardo (Jan Mayen to 9°W, Kvitoya to 33°E). Norway is one of the world’s most northerly countries, and one of Europe’s most mountainous countries with large areas dominated by the Scandinavian Mountains; average elevation is 460 m and 32% of the mainland is located above the tree line.
The country-length chain of peaks is geologically continuous with the mountains of Scotland, Ireland and, crossing the Atlantic Ocean, the Appalachian Mountains of North America. Geologists hold that all these formed a single range prior to the breakupof the ancient supercontinent Pangaea. Virtually the entire country was covered with a thick ice sheet during the last ice age, as well as in many earlier ice ages. The movement of the ice carved out deep valleys, and when the ice melted, the sea filled many of these valleys, creating Norway’s famous fjords.
 The land is still rebounding from the enormous weight of the ice (isostatic rebound), “growing out of the sea” with several mm a year, especially the eastern part of the country and the inner part of the long fjords, where the ice cover was thickest. This is a slow process, and for thousands of years following the end of the ice age, the sea covered substantial areas of what is today dry land. The sea reached what is today an elevation of 221 m in Oslo (Aker), 25 m in Stavanger, 5 m near Stad, 180 m inTrondheim, 50 m in Tromso and 75 m in Kirkenes.
This old seabed is now among the best agricultural land in the country. The glaciers in the higher mountain areas today are not remnants of the large ice sheet of the ice age, their origins are more recent.  The regional climate was up to 1-3 °C warmer in 7000 B. C. to 3000 B. C. in the Holocene climatic optimum, (relative to the 1961-90 period), melting the remaining glaciers in the mountains almost completely during that period. As a result of the ice carving, Sognefjorden is the world’s second deepest fjord and Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in.
Transport in Norway is highly influenced by Norway’s low population density, narrow shape and long coastline. Norway has old water transport traditions, but road, rail and air transport have increased in importance during the 20th century. Due to the low population density, public transport is somewhat less built out in rural areas of Norway, however public transport in, and around cities is well developed. The main governing body is the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications, which performs operations through numerous subsidiaries.
Tasks related to public transport and some roads have been delegated to the counties and municipalities. Most infrastructure is publicly owned, while most operations are performed by private companies; public transport is subsidized. In average each Norwegian transported themselves for 70 minutes each day. 8% of passenger transport was made by public transport; road transport is the dominant mode of transport. The transport sector was responsible for 4. 1% of the gross national product and 6. 6% of employment in 2006.
1000–1600 Main article: Old Town, Oslo Under the reign of King Olav Kyrre, Oslo became a cultural centre for Eastern Norway. St. Hallvard became the city’s patron saint and is depicted on the city’s seal. In 1174, Hovedoya Abbey (Hovedoya kloster) was built. The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city’s economic development, especially before the Black Death. During the Middle Ages, Oslo reached its heights in the reign of King Haakon V. He started the building of Akershus Castleand was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo the capital of Norway.
In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city. TheBlack Death came to Norway in 1349 and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches’ earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city’s foreign trade in the 15th century. 1600s Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city’s buildings were built entirely of wood. After the last fire in 1624, which lasted for three days, King Christian IV decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again.
His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus Castle. He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city of Christiania. The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years. Outside the city, near Vaterland and Gronland near Old Town, Oslo, a new, unmanaged part of the city grew up with citizens of low status. 1700s In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War, the city’s economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port.
Bergen Railways,Oslo Marka and T-BANEN Name Location Number of stores * Sandvika Storsenter Sandvika 195 * Oslo City / Byporten Oslo 175 * AMFI Moa Alesund 170 * Kvadrat Sandnes 160 * Ski Storsenter Ski 145 * Jessheim Storsenter Jessheim 144 * Arken Bergen 138 * Lagunen Storsenter Bergen 135 * Sartor Storsenter Fjell 134 * Farmandstredet Tonsberg 126 * Gulskogen Senter Drammen 125 * Storo Storsenter Oslo 125 * Strommen Storsenter Skedsmo 118 * Sorlandssenteret Kristiansand 115 * Metro Senter Lorenskog 102 * AMFI Moss Moss 100 * AMFI Steinkjer Steinkjer 100.
* Liertoppen Drammen 100 * Stovner Senter Oslo 100 * Buskerud Storsenter Drammen 90 * Vestkanten Bergen 90 * Torvbyen Fredrikstad 85 * CC Gjovik Gjovik 83 * Lorenskog Storsenter Lorenskog 83 * Byporten Oslo 82 * Down Town (shopping center) Porsgrunn 81 * Lillestrom Torv Lillestrom 80 * Oasen Storsenter Karmoy 80 * Trekanten (shopping center) Asker 80 * CC Vest Oslo 78 * Herkules Skien 78 * AMFI Borg Sarpsborg 75 * Storbyen Sarpsborg 75 * Vinterbro Senter Vinterbro 75 * Trondheim Torg Trondheim 73 * Tveita Senter Oslo 73 * Bergen Storsenter Bergen 72 * City Syd.
Trondheim 71 * Aker Brygge Oslo 70 * Galleriet Bergen 70 * Stavanger Storsenter Stavanger 70 * Ostfoldhallen Fredrikstad 70 * Maxi Hamar Storsenter Hamar 68 * Amanda Storsenter Haugesund 67 * Magasinet Drammen 65 * Strandtorget Lillehammer 65 * Roseby Molde 64 * Manglerud Senter Oslo 63 * AMFI Vagen Stavanger 60 * Kilden Stavanger 60 * Knarvik Senter Bergen 60 * Solsiden Trondheim 60 * Jekta Storsenter Tromso 122 * Mosseporten Moss 55 * Alesund Storsenter Alesund 53 * Namsos Storsenter Namsos 52 * KBS Kjopesenter Trondheim 47 * Nerstranda Tromso 46 * AMFI Narvik.
Narvik 45 * Holmensentret Asker 45 * Byhaven Trondheim 42 * AMFI Pyramiden Tromso 40 * Gunerius Shoppingsenter Oslo 35 * Kvartal 48 Hamar 17 * AMFI Veita Tromso 17 Norwegian restaurant dinner If you want to try tasty, Norwegian everyday food such as farikal (lamb and cabbage stew), lapskaus (brown stew), kjottkaker(large, Norwegian meat balls), steamed salmon or fish soup, Kaffistova and Dovrehallen are good and reasonably-priced alternatives. Here they serve dishes that most Norwegians eat at home once in a while. Traditional Norwegian specialities.
If you feel like Norwegian specialities such as reindeer, moose or lutefisk (cod cured in lye) in historical surroundings, there are many good options in Oslo. East of the city centre you find the old beer hall Olympen and the restaurant Oslo Spiseforretning. In the historical city centre, Kvadraturen, you can try the institutions Gamle Raadhus Restaurant and Engebret Cafe – both with 150 years of restaurant history. On the other side of Karl Johans gate are Grand Cafe and Stortorvets Gjestgiveri in historical facilities. Exclusive restaurants with a view Many of Oslo’s finest restaurants are found in the hills surrounding the city.
Here you can enjoy delicious Norwegian food while enjoying the view. In the area around Holmenkollen you can choose between Finstua at Frognerseteren, Holmenkollen Restaurant and the hotel restaurants at Lysebu, Voksenasen and Holmenkollen Park. Guests at the elegant Grefsenkollen restaurant and Ekebergrestauranten also have a great view. Seafood restaurants Norway is known for its high-quality seafood, and some of Oslo’s best restaurants specialise in fresh fish and seafood.
At Aker Brygge and Tjuvholmen by the harbour you can enjoy good seafood and a fjord view at Lofoten, D/S Louise and Tjuvholmen Sjomagasin. Across the harbour you find Solsiden Restaurant, and in the city centre Restaurant Havsmak and Restaurant Fjordin modern facilities. At Majorstua you can visit the cosy Lofotstua. Modern Norwegian food If you want to try the latest in Norwegian cuisine, Maaemo is worth a visit. The restaurant at Gronland only serves food made from local, organic produce.
At the design hotel Grims Grenka, the restaurant Madu offers a menu consisting of ”raw food” – food cooked at low temperatures. Food with beer Norway has a rich beer tradition, and in the last years places like Handverkerstuene, Akersberget and Amundsen Bryggeri & Spiseri started developing dishes made with and for different types of beer. Oslo has a humid continental climate (Dfb according to the Koppen climate classification system). Because of the city’s northern latitude, daylight varies greatly, from more than 18 hours in midsummer, when it never gets completely dark at night, to around 6 hours in midwinter.
 Despite its high latitude and northerly location, the climate is not severely cold due to the onshore airmasses in winter and the coastal location of the city. Oslo has pleasantly mild to warm summers with average high temperatures of around 19–24 °C (66–75 °F) and lows of around 12 °C(54 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded was 35 °C (95 °F) on 21 July 1901. Winters are cold and snowy with temperatures between ? 7 °C (19 °F) up to ? 1 °C (30 °F). The coldest temperature recorded is ? 27. 1 °C (? 16. 8 °F) in January 1942.  Temperatures have tended to be higher in recent years.
 Annual precipitation is 763 millimetres (30. 0 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall can occur from October to May, but snow accumulation occurs mainly from January through March. Almost every winter, ice develops in the innermost parts of the Oslofjord, and during some winters the whole inner fjord freezes. As it is far from the mild Atlantic water of the west coast, this large fjord can freeze over completely, although this has become rare.  Oslo receives around 1,650 hours of sunshine annually and is average for the northern half of Europe. In Oslo,Norway.