Communication theory provides scientific basis for psychotherapy and is commonly applied to mental disorder and it specifically deals exclusively with problems of schizophrenia (Poster, 1980, p. 112). However, it is also applied in family therapy and nurses can utilize this theory when deciding an approach needed for the family to reach new goals or handle problems through language (Whyte, 1997, p. 185).
In providing primary care, FNPs are required to be able to efficiently use communication when dealing with patients and professionals. They should be able to make them feel that they have the freedom to express themselves and have a sense of control. In addition, they should be able to help manage their clients’ anxiety level, compliance, understanding risks or benefits, and decision making processes (Anderson & Marlett, 2004).
The use of simple words and nonverbal communication, visual aids, encouraging interaction, showing interest in listening and ensuring that they are also listening, eliciting individuals to ask questions, and assessment of their understanding based on given information enable FNPs to effectively communicate with family members while working with them in improving their environment, health, and social conditions (Epstein et al. , 2004). Current and future research direction for nurse practitioners
Researchers (Andrews & Janet, 1996; Lumby & Picone, 2000) found that early research on nurse practitioner focused much on providing primary care, especially to mothers and babies and eventually shifted to tertiary care facilities in acute care settings in addition to providing services for patients with chronic and terminal illness, sexual abuse experience, learning difficulties, eating disorder, vulnerable family structure, as well as extending services to elderly or diverse populations with cost-efficient and high-quality services, which are almost similar in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
It is apparent that nurse practitioners like APNs and FNPs have overlapping roles with other professional. Mccabe and Burman (2006) suggest that research must pursue the national dialogue regarding the generalization, specialization, and sub-specialization in APN practice and roles since advanced assessment, pharmacology, and pathophysiology cannot be regarded as the true basis of APN practice. An overall assessment, with involvement from the community, will be used to determine what steps should be taken to reach the health goals.
Andrews and Gottschalk (1996), in reviewing the ICNEP model proposed for the development of a primary health care curriculum for nurses that is not hospital based, especially when health systems are talking about family nurse-midwives in rural areas or developing countries to provide women and men education opportunity in their own locality, make health services more accessible and cost-effective, while evaluating the health care outcomes and effectiveness of the ICNEP and other educational models for nursing education.
Conclusion The ICNEP is one of the nursing education models that aims to aims to strengthen and expand health services not only for women and children but also for family and community. Today, many educational institutions also offer nursing courses or diploma programs based on the required qualifications for nurses to effectively perform their roles.
In the United States educational requirements for nursing practice includes at least a 2-year associate degree (AA), a 3-year diploma, or a 4-year baccalaureate degree (BSN), passing the NCLEX, master’s or doctoral degree, other certificates, work experience, continued education, self-assessment exercises, practice requirements, additional approved courses, renewal of license and/or retaking a national board examination. Nurse practitioner started as a general concept with various interpretations but health care systems and organizations have made efforts in distinguishing the boundaries and roles of APNs.
The roles of FNPs have also evolved and expanded as the need for more specific, cost-effective, and more accessible health services have increased. In addition to primary care services, FNPs’ roles include: improvement of children’s long-term health; providing primary and ambulatory care; working in different settings; treating or helping families prevent chronic and terminal illness, learning difficulties, eating disorder, and other illnesses; caring for the elderly; meeting the health needs of family; and engaging in opportunities for increased knowledge and skills enhancement.
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