The health cost dimension of illegal aliens is brought out by the fact that all migrants are being cared for by the health care system regardless of their being documented or not. (Guzzardi: 2003). As a result the non budgeted individuals are drawing funds which have been otherwise allotted for natives and legal migrants. Thus partially denying genuine recipients. This has placed the Medicaid system in the state into a disarray and increased the budgetary deficit. The situation is said to be so grave that the shortfalls will be beyond the capability of absorption by the state health care budget.
Some evangelists tend to accept these costs as parts of the contribution that the aliens are making to the economy of the state as also quite a few of them are also paying taxes. The humanitarian approach is also denoted by the fact that most of the personnel are going to hospitals for critical care. (Guzzardi: 2003). The state of unpaid bills in 24 states, a quarter of which is attributable to illegal immigrants is also very large. This is said to be resulting in straining the health care system and leading to heavy unpaid bills by uninsured citizens. (Francis: 2003).
The cost of medical aid to illegal immigrants is also said to be larger than natives as these are generally from under developed countries with limited health care and endemic diseases. Thus there is a need for greater resources being expended for their health. In addition, they are also known to suffer from many contagious diseases some of which had been eradicated from the United States long back. (www. fairus. org). An increase in TB cases in the United States has been noticed and of the cases in California, 61 percent comprised of immigrants while 43 percent did not have any health insurance.
The cost of these is passed on to the state. Another frequent medical expense of illegal immigrants is delivery of babies. A study in California has revealed that the maternity cost for illegal migrants in the state in 1994 was at $ 215 million, constituting 36 percent of all Medi-Cal births. These are known to have grown currently to more than half of the Medi-Cal budget. (www. fairus. org). The problem of illegal immigrants straining the health services and resources in California is more than evident from a study of the available literature on the subject.
This needs deliberate analysis to identify its root causes and suggest alternatives or remedies. This chapter aims at denoting the methodology of the research. It describes the research objectives; common research philosophies, research approaches and the research strategy. In addition the research path chosen by the author will be discussed in detail. Finally, the problems that could arise during the research will be described. There are three dominant research paradigms: positivism, realism and interpretism.
The author will be looking at these widely used approaches as per succeeding paragraphs. Positivism Positivism adopts a scientific stance on the method of research and interpretation of data. This research philosophy holds that only phenomena which are observable and measurable can be regarded as knowledge. The research often comprises quantitative elements rather than qualitative which dominates interpretivistic research. Phenomenology (Interpretivism) The opposite of the positivistic approach leads to interpretivism also called as phenomenology.
This approach often used by social scientists, attempts to comprehend people’s socially constructed interpretations which are subjective to reality. Positivistic and interpretivistic paradigm are two extremes and most researchers use elements of both practises; which is known as realism. A realistic approach will best suit the present research as both qualitative and quantitative impact of illegal immigration on the social and health service in California will have to be studied in depth. Research Approach
There are mainly two research approaches, which can be adopted, deductive and inductive. The deductive approach according to Hussay and Hussay is used when a theory and/or a hypothesis are developed and a research design is created to test that theory/hypothesis. Usually correlated with quantitative research, the deductive approach should be developed in such a way whereby facts and samples ought to be in sufficient numerical size for generalization. The same is diagrammatically covered as per Figure 1 below.