Assess the effectiveness of the League of Nations and the United Nations.

Both the League of Nations and the United Nations aimed to maintain peace The League succeeded in settling dispute between Bulgaria and Greece, Greece and Italy over Corfu Island. These conflicts were only between small nations. However, the League failed to check the aggression of the Axis powers. This led to the outbreak of the Second World War. In 20-year time, another great war broke out in 1939. Comparatively, the United Nations could help maintain peace more effectively. The United Nations succeeded in the Korean War. The intervention of the UN force was successful. An armistice was signed in 1953.

The UN stepped in the Suez Crisis and arranged a cease-fire. Although the root causes of some conflict could not be resolved, e. g. the Israeli- Palestinian conflicts, another great war did not break out until now. This shows that the United Nations was more effective in maintaining peace. Both the League and the United Nations aimed to improve peoples well-being and living standards. The League solved the problem of refugees, prisoners of war, improve workers working environment and conditions, especially child labour. It also prohibited slavery trade. It set up unified measurement systems.

It provided loans to Austria and Hungary to solve post war economic problems. The UN specialized agencies, e. g. WHO, WTO, World Bank, IMF, UNEP. They all did very well in improving peoples living standards and social well- being. They aroused international concern over some issues which need support and cooperation among nations. Also, they give financial assistance and technical support to the developing nations and they acted as a bridge between developed nations and developing nations in various issues. The specialized agencies set up the quantitative target for the member nations to achieve.

Also, they educate the developing nations the importance of health, family planning, environmental conservation. Work with NGO. Comparatively, the United Nations agencies did more in improving the well-being of the people. They try to encourage international cooperation in various aspects. They provide a platform for developing countries and developed countries to discuss the world problems and narrow the controversies among them. League of Nations could not maintain peace because of its weakness Lack representation US was never the member, USSR joined in 1934 only.

No permanent army Economic sanction was hard to enforce especially when the US was never the member and member states suffered greatly from the Great Depression. Britain and France adopted an appeasement policy and they bypassed the League to negotiate with Italy over Abyssinia Crisis and Germany over Sudetenland. Even though Italy and Japan were permanent members of the Council, they did not support the League but to challenge the League. Later they withdrew from the League in 1935 and 1933 respectively. The Resolution had to be passed in unanimous. It was hard to achieve.

Did not have meeting frequently, thats why the punishment was always given after a long time. Lytton Report was announced in 1933. The League condemned Japan two years later than the Manchurian Crisis broke out. Economic sanction imposed on Italy was not comprehensive. Oil was not banned on sale to Italy. Italy still could use the Suez Canal. Britain and France, two pillars of the League did not wholeheartedly check Hitler, e. g. no action taken when he remilitarized the Rhineland, his act violated the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaty. Britain even agreed.

Germany to build up her navy up to 35 of Britains naval capacity. The United Nations were more effective in maintaining peace because Major powers are the members. 2/3 majority votes could pass a resolution. The decision made by the Security Council, the other member states had to follow. Powers are more voluntary in sending troops to form UN troops, e. g. in the Korean War and the Gulf War. It was founded in 1945 and up till now, there were no major military conflicts broke out. The United Nations could not fully fulfill its aims because of its weakness US and USSR confronted in the period of the Cold War, they abused the use of their veto power in the Council.

This delayed the decision making. The Third World nations are ex-colonies, they are non-aligned. Their stance always contradicts with the rich nations. Financial pressure as the UN has too many specialized agencies and staff. No permanent troops so it was hard to take military intervention frequently, e. g the Bosnia War and Kosovo War were ended by the NATO military intervention. In Israeli- Palestinian Conflicts, the USA contribution played an important role. The deep rooted causes.