For my project i have chosen the Icon piece Jewelry of 1900-1930 period, Art Nouveau (1895-1920) and Art Deco (1920-1930) period. Nowadays it became a trend to wear vintage clothes, accessories and jewelry. The lovers of the spirit of antiquity in today’s outfit appreciate opportunity to find some unique and rare pieces of that Art Nouveau and Art Deco period in some vintage markets. Art Nouveau (New Art) as an art movement appeared that time, when it was needed a bridge in a psychological gap between the old and the new century.
In 1900, arts and crafts inspired by the history and at the same time craving for something new and truly modern style gave a way to a new promising approach. Art Nouveau, covering the period from 1895 to 1920, exposure to old and new ideas, owes something to each of them. Speaking about the Art Deco (Decorative Art) style, it should be noted that it prevailed in the era between the two World Wars, and was a reflection of a radically changed world. Age of speed, scientific and technological progress, liberation after the Victorian era.
The pace of life is changing, changing the image of women. This is no longer naive and romantic girl, this image is changing to more independent and even vamp. Simple, practical, and at the same time expensive clothes, hobby, career, sports and jazz – all this required a new approach and a new style of jewelry too. With the beggining of woman emansipation , Ideology of Art Nouveau had a strong influence on the jewelry. Women in the interwar period, began to show a new look: bare hands, bright lipstick, short angular haircuts, short dresses in a scandalous club style “Flapper”.
This new boyish silhouette highlighted with accessories and jewelry in a free style: long necklaces and earrings, rings and several bracelets. One of the major influences on Art Nouveau was the Symbolist movement, which had begun in the 1880’s. The imagery adopted by this group of artists combined religious mysticism with eroticism, as seen particulary in the work of the Austrian painter, Gustav Klimt. Art Nouveau combined inspiration from this source with some of the elements of Arts and Crafts philosophy. It is highly varied and asymmetrical
forms, it also reflected the political uneasiness of it’s period. By the beginning of World War II, the last remnants of the nineteenth century were eradicated. There, where the taste of the nineteenth century still reveled in excess, the economic and social pressures, which immediately followed the war, brought a new mood, and a strict and clear modern look. The precision equipment employed in jewelry making could be adapted with relative ease to gun part manufacture, and the market for new decorative jewelry which had flourished between 1900 and 1914 virtually dried up during the war.
There was no importing or exporting of jewelry except on the black market. During the “Art Deco” period that followed the war, jewelry design was closely related to fine art, particulary in France, which was the cultural center of Europe. Many artists and sculptors, including Picasso, Braque and Salvador Dali experimented with jewelry design, bringing the influence of Cubism and Futurism. However, this period of rigor didn’t last long, in 1920 there was a consumption boom, due to the prosperity of industry, which affected all sectors of society and brought violent and bright mood.
Art Deco, a characteristic style of that period, just right contains an intriguing contradiction of these two completely different post-war sentiments. On the one hand it is rational and restrained, on the other hand, there are elements that can be described as frivolous or even flashy. This is one of the most eclectic styles corresponding to the period of rapid change, serious and sharp contrasts to which he belongs Art Nouveau concentrated on the rich treatment of surface decoration. It was a style that was applied to everything from fine art to architecture and interior design.
Most characteristic of Art Nouveau is a tendency to asymmetry, produsing a sense of instability which is highlighted through the use of whiplash curves and tendrils. Another ubiquitous presence is the femme fatale- the seductive nymph of Pre-Raphaelite paintings. Much of the imagery in Art Nouveau comes from mythology, whether in the form of winged dragons and serpents (portents of evil), the gothic horrors of vampires and bats or more ethereal creatures such as peacock the dragonfly. In Jewelry design, the Art Nouveau style led to a move away from precious stones and towards non-precious compositions, particularly in bronze, glass, enamel,
mother-of-pearl, ivory and shells. Jewels now more appreciated for it’s estetic qualities rather than it’s inherent value. The term comes from the name of the Parisian shop-museum “Maison Bing, L’Art Nouveau” (the owner of Samuel Bing). It should be noted that the emerged in Paris Art Nouveau style quickly spread throughout Europe. But in this case (ie, for all countries), we are talking about the modern style. “Modern” style (French moderne – the newest, modern), one of the names of the style trends in the European and American art of the late 19th – early 20th centuries. In Belgium, the UK and the U. S.
it is known as the “new art» (Art Nouveau), in Germany – “Jugendstil”, in Austria –Sezessionstil”, in Italy – “the style of Liberty” (“stile Liberty “), in Spain – “modernism” (“modernismo”). The new style is the latest incarnation of the ideals of Romanticism in art. Modern, penetrated almost every area of ?? art in the last decade of the nineteenth century, quickly spread throughout Europe and across the ocean found adherents in the United States. Nouveau emerged in the crisis of bourgeois culture as a form of neo-romantic protest against the anti-estetic bourgeois way of life, as a reaction to the dominance of positivism and pragmatism.
Modern trend developed ideas of symbolism and aesthetics, the “philosophy of life” F. Nietzsche. Modern, according to a number of its theorists (Belgian HC van de Velde, who relied on the socialist utopia of William Morris, had to become a new way of life, which is formed under the influence of the society, to create around a person the space and material environment, full of aesthetically and spiritual richness content of the era with the synthesis of arts, new, non-traditional forms and techniques, advanced materials and structures.
Modern most consistently implemented its principles in the narrow sphere of creation of luxury individual dwellings. But in the spirit of Modernism, who sought to become a universal style of it’s time, were built a numerous business, industrial and commercial buildings, railway stations, theaters, bridges, apartment houses. Nouveau tried to overcome the characteristic of bourgeois culture of the 19th century contradiction between artistic and utilitarian principles, give aesthetic meaning to a new features and design systems that attach to the art of all aspects of life and make a person as a part of art.
Desire to change the art world in the frame of capitalist society was deeply utopian. Practically Modern was the first relatively solid style of decoration of various spheres of bourgeois life. The main meaning of expression in the Art Nouveau style is a design, which is not only decorates the product, but also shapes its compositional structure. Style Art Nouveau was an artistic protest against the established rules of the game and artistic interpretation thereof. Neither social consciousness of the Victorians, neither hedonism of the Edwardians, not seemed to the Adepts of Art Nouveau some how aesthetic.
Any expression of classicism, in any case, appealed to certain canons, whether for the Art Nouveau artist the only authority for appeals was the soul of man, his emotions and desires, often hidden, but very controversial. It is clear, that this art couldn’t become a mainstream in a society where the dominant defining moral was stiff and restraint, so, at first, there was no chance for the artists of Art Nouveau to work with the prohibitively expensive materials and rich clients. Jewelry that style doesn’t claimed the title of status accessories, and were intended to serve as an expression of sensual nature of owner or giver.
Accordingly, it’s likely that the first-line precious and gems were not available to the masters, but, more importantly, are not needed. Formalism of the diamonds, their monochrome directness in terms of Art Nouveau style, loses to the wealth of colors of opal, moonstone, chalcedony, tourmaline amethyst, aquamarine, topaz, green garnet. Diamonds have been used, but only as a decorative element. Jewelers wanted to work with rich, vivid and bright colors, imitating the work of an artist. The idea of decor was valued more than the material from which it is made.
One can say that the era of Art Nouveau – the era of design – the time when the idea is more expensive than gold, when the master’s designed jewelry is appreciated much more, and sometimes more expensive than mass products. The main hero, or rather heroine of a new direction in art was a woman. Long, wavy flowing hair, smooth and soft lines of the female body especially represented the stylistic preferences of modernity. On the canvases of new direction artists woman appears much more often than men.
And the whole character of the style – women’s: it clearly felt the desire to please. Here’s the pursuit of external beauty is complemented by exhibitionism and a fair amount of coquetry. It is no accident that one of the many nicknames of modern – femine and flower style. This feminine art of the late century, perhaps better than any other was able to express in his art Czech artist Alphonse Mucha. He was born in 1860 in the Moravian town of Ivancice and at the end of the century made a loud glory in the world capital of art – Paris.
But before he got the triumph and allowed himself to turn the shop into a museum of precious things and rarities, he had to endure all hardships and troubles of life of the unknown, unrecognized artists that Paris always had in excess. Opportunity to become a professional artist appeared only when Alphonse Mucha was 25 years old, although he began to paint almost in infancy, though the left hand. He studied first in Munich and then in Paris. Here, not immediately, but he had a luck – he found work in the theater of the divine, the goddess, as she was called that time, Sarah Bernhardt.
From 1894 to 1901 Alphonse Mucha made for her theater performances sets of decorations and posters. The first work immediately famed Czech artist’s name, was the poster for the play of the theater of Sarah Bernhardt “Gismonda”, which appeared in the morning of January the 1th, 1895 on the poster boards Paris. After “Gismonda” there were others, not less successful posters, they occasionally reprinted, and then were released as postcards. Orders started to pour to an artist in a abundance. Alphonse Mucha wasn’t a jeweler. It all started with the same posters of Sarah Bernhardt, where often were presented unusual jewelry.
To create them Mucha studied history and folklore. And only then he began to develop jewelry sketches on request. This unusual jewelry implemented by the famous Parisian jeweler Georges Fouquet. Collaboration between the artist and jeweler began in 1898 or so. At the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 presented Alphonse’s jewelry collection, which caused a sensation. Indeed, the collection consisted of fantastic theatrical items that were composed of a large number of components and the combined sets of techniques and materials.
The jewelry that was previously shown in his posters now became models for the real ones, extremely graceful in the Eastern and Byzantine styles. In its refined luxury these treasures were competing with modern beautiful jewelry art, inspired by the symbolism, such as the art of Rene Lalique. In order to attract a wider clientele, in subsequent works Mucha avoided ornamental redundancy for greater rigor. The most famous piece of jewelry created from Mucha sketches by Fouquet – a gold bracelet, ” Serpentine Bracelet With Ring”. It was made in 1899 for Sarah Bernhardt, for the role of Cleopatra.
Unprecedented in Europe bracelet in the coiled snake form twined forearm, sting turns into a ring with a thin chain. First its image appeared on the poster for “Medea. ” Bracelet and ring shocked its naturalism (coiled serpent), which smooths with the exotic materials – opals, rubies, diamonds and enamel. The decorations on Mucha’s theater posters were a sophisticated historical styling in a spirit of authentic artifacts of the Middle Ages: A wide decorative belt, relief Ribbon chain and richly ornamented weapons (“Lorenzaccio”, “Hamlet”).
Development stage design performances demanded of the artist exploring the historical and folkloric material. Therefore costume jewelry and accessories have appeared on posters and decorative panels as necessary decorations. Images effectively emphasize the most incredible precious items. Hair accessories, vaguely resembling a diadem, complex multilayers necklaces, belts Chatelier with pendants, earrings, agraphia and plates, which fades into a dress (“Babe,” “Zodiac” and others). Stage decoration, painted artist’s imagination, defined as subjects series of decorative panels (“Gems”).
Original drawings Mucha were appreciated. It should be noted that Fouquet had a hard conquer with not less famous jewelers R. Lalique and A. Wever. And what happened? Unusual projects of Mucha confused critics and brought accusations of a lack of connection with the current fashion. Jewels made by Fouquet, really awkward and somewhat eclectic, as, for example, designed for Sarah Bernhardt, corsage brooch burdened with clusters of small stones of irregular shape. If at the posters these decorations looked really good – as for the all of the jewel images made by Mucha – that in the incarnation were somewhat controversial.
However, not everyone, of course, shared this opinion. And here’s a proof: the series jewelry, made from Mucha sketches, brought the success for Fouquet at several world fairs, having conquered the audience with their novelty. In 1902, Mucha issued the album “Decorative papers» (Documents decoratifs), including a collection of 72sketch works Art Nouveau for designers in the field of arts and crafts. Portfolio also includes a variety of ornamental and naturalistic floral decorations, sketches of female heads and nudes.
In these works illustrative naturalism framed with abstract patterns. Most influential among the French artist-jewelers was the glass-maker Rene Lalique. He was living in a time when the best friends of ladies of high society were diamonds. Well, in case of emergency – sapphires and emeralds. Crystal, horns and shells, silver, were friends of someone, but not the “girls from high society. ” There’s a legend, that one day, Rene Lalique came to “Boucheron” famous jewelry house, and brought a sketch ornaments with two flying swallows.
House director grimaced and said that such ornament is “too extravagant” for his clients. But Lalique did not gave up and embodied jewelry in the material. In his next visit the director without talking laid out the required amount of money for that piece. Heads of other houses were doing the same way – from initial doubts that the “plebeian” Butterflies and semi-precious stones, or even worse – a crystal, would be appreciated by the ladies of high society – until readiness to buy everything Lalique will offer their houses for any money.
When Lalique bothered to go on the bow to the owners of the “Cartier”, “Boucheron” and other famous jewelry houses, he opened his own shop on the same street in Paris in 1885. And then happened what was they scared of, those who believed that Lalique’s jewelry will scare off customers. And indeed, they scared away, but from diamonds. Part of the customers of these houses really moved to Rene Lalique, preferring crystal butterflies, flowers and pearl to cold brilliance of diamonds and rubies. He had a profound impact throughout Europe and America, starting when he opened a shop.
He showed his work at the Salon du Champ Mars gallery in 1895 and again in the Paris exhibition in 1900. He has become particularly renowned for the pieces he made for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. They were a bold and extravagant celebration of mythology, combining engraved and stained glass in a theatrical style appropriate to the world of the actress. Lalique linked precious materials with lesser ones such as horn, using a wide variety of techniques. By using many different materials he was able to match the colour of a piece of jewelry to a dress design.
He used gold enamels, large pearls and a galaxy of semi-precious stones to create glowing, exuberant jewelry that was distinctively his own. Art Deco owes to it’s birth to several sources, including the style of Art Nouveau (Art Nouwau), Cubism, German Bauhaus, and how paradoxically isn’t that, the archaeological finds of the century. The opening of the tomb and treasures of Tutankhamen by archaeologists in 1922, caused a culture craze of ancient Egypt. With its laconic perfection of forms and lines, it became a new source of inspiration for artists and jewelers. The huge role also played and Russian Ballet Seasons of S.
Dyagilev, which admired Europe not only because of an innovative approach to the art of ballet, but also with very original, bright, very expressive costumes and decorations. Art Deco – perhaps one of the most luxurious and attractive style of XX century. Art Deco first came after the exhibition of French luxury goods «Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes», held in 1925 in Paris. The birth of the Art Deco marked a revolution in art and culture. This style has its roots in the early twentieth century avant-garde art, daring, unusual and beautiful in its own way, began the march across the world.
Architecture, ceramics, furniture design and automotive design, fashion and advertising readily obeyed this style. Deco has absorbed all that was in the air and occupied the minds of the early XX century: simple and pure forms futuristic paintings, inspired by the ancient art of classical Greece and recent discovered pictures of the ancient Egyptians, powerful pace of technological progress, fast-flowing lines of fast cars. It was like a gust of fresh air: a style that embodies the twentieth century, with its uncontrolled development of technology and the advent of new unseen materials.
A period of geometric forms, decorative motifs and stylized graphics. Easy and smooth lines, reaching to primitivism, and tech streamlined forms perplex the inhabitants, but the upper-class aesthetes immediately gave heart to this new style. So what is the look of the decorations in the art deco style? No floral elements and smooth lines – simple geometric shapes, clean lines and bold colors. Creating jewelry in the Art Deco style, leading jewelers combined in one product the seemingly incongruous materials.
Diamonds and enamel or onyx, precious and semi-precious stones, ivory, mother of pearl and coral could deal together in one piece. As a consequence of the aesthetics of industrial culture, Art Deco differ by the symmetric classic design and strict geometric, zigzag and stepped forms and patterns, it had a bold and vigorous application of wide curves (unlike the soft flowing curves of Art Nouveau), V -shaped chevron motifs and black and white keys of musical instruments. Under the influence of the fashion at the time of Cubism in Art Deco jewelry is often used such shapes as circles, ovals, arcs, rectangles, triangles, and squares.
Among the designers who first presented the new style of the upper class, were well-known designers Coco Chanel, Rene Lalique and Elsa Schiaparelli. Very often Art deco style was called industrial, thanks to a smooth shiny white metals: platinum, silver, white gold or even a mixture of different metals. American jewelry company «Harry Winston and Tiffany & Co. » Became known precisely by their iconic Art Deco style, and in Europe «Cartier», «Mauboussin», «Van Cleef & Arpels» produced world-famous products in this style.
The interest of the couturiers in costume jewelry had been initiated by Paul Poiret before the war, when he produced theatrical jewelry for Diaghilev’s Ballet Russe in 1910. The bold bright Eastern silhouettes presented in this ballet costumes very contrasted with the style of the time, Art Nouveau. Poire later continued to develop its range of jewelery. He took into his team fine jewelers of that time, Rene Boivin, Gripoix and the artist Paul Iribe to complete his collections for the European stores with the accessories already in 1913. They have been producing the silk tassel-style jewelry strewn with gems, in typical style of Poiret.
Other couturiers such as Chanel and Schiaparelli followed the Poiret’s lead. The gradual introduction of costume jewelry in the early twentieth century is clearly associated with the more functionalist and modernist style. By the eve of the First World War, elaborate and delicate jewelry characteristic of the Edwardian period was replaced by much larger and simpler pieces. Seasonal costume jewelry finally came into its own and this owed much to the work of two influential fashion designers of the period, Gabrielle Chanel and Elsa Schiaparelli.
They removed the stigma of wearing fake jewels, from items of pure imitation to the celebration of «stylishness and nonchalant luxury». Chanel is omportant, not only because she «invented» costume jewelry, but also because she used these unusual designs to complement her own fashion collections. She believed that the concept of «fake» should be used as a symbol of confidence for the new independant woman of the twenties, since the wearing of precious jewelry was looked down as being frivolous and unpatriotic, particulary after the war. So far as the world jewelry scene was concerned, the spotlight had long been focused on Paris.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the great jewelers such as Cartier, Vever, Laillet, Henry Lyon, Boucheron, Chaumet, Van Cleef et Arpels, Lalique, Dusausoy formed a colony in the rue de la Paix and the Place Vendome, a domain which was reserved for them as the Petit-Pont district had been in the Middle ages, the rue Saint Honore in the eighteenth century and the Galeries du Palais Royal in the nineteenth century. Their salons, furnished with little tables, were like «salons de the» where the visitor was awed into silence by the inexhaustible selection of diamonds, pearls and precious stones.
Nowadays, the price of jewelry Art Deco and Art Nouveau styles soaring on the most important markets and auctions in London, New York, Geneva, Paris and Monte Carlo, where the lovers of high art and speculators are presented together. A huge number of modern jewelry houses are busy creating models in styles of that time. It’s a best proof of it’s contemporarity and invent richness. Bibliography: Sylvie Raulet «Art Deco Jewelry» Richard Whitehouse «A History of 20th Century Jewelry» David Lancaster «Twentieth-Century Jewelry» John Peacock « 20th Century Jewelry»