Aristotle – Italy

?Democracy The Athens called their political system Demokratia. In democracy the people hold supreme political authority and goverment is conducted only by and with the conset of the people. By the 6th Century B. C. , ordinary citizens of Athens could participate fully qoverment. Some of the most basic principles of modern democracles originated in Athens including majority juries and the rule of law. The assembly of all citizens of Athens the ecclesia met about three times a moth outside the city of Phyx hill.

Here citizensgather to debate important issues and would vote on laws. Aristotle The Greek philosopher Aristotle, a student of Plato, admired many of his teachers ideas. Yet he critized Plato for his impractical idealism. In Politics, completed around 322 B. C. , Aristotle concerns himself with the actual workings of goverment. Specifically he attempts to determine what kind of goverment best suits the city state. Aristotle developed his own ideas about goverment. He analyzed all forms of goverment from monarchy, to democracy, and found good and bad examples of each.

Aristotle promoted reason as the guiding force for learning. Following Plato’s examples, he set up a school, the Lyceum, for the study of all braches of knowledge. Roman Republic Roman began as a small city state in Italy but ended ruling the entire Mediterranen world. In process the Romans established traditions of goverment that continued to influence the modern world. The story of Roman success starts with the geography of Italy. The peninsula looks like a boot jutting into Mediterranean sea.

That location helped the Romans as they expanded, first in Italy and then into lands around Mediterranean. Rome’s political system evolved at home, its armies expanded Roman power across Italy. Roman armies conquered first the Ethruscans and then the Greek city- States in the south. By about 270 B. C. , Rome controlled most of the Italian Peninsula. Ethics Ethics-Moral standards of behavior. Some Greek philosophers focused on Ethics and morality. Ethics and morality concern the idea of goodness and the establishment of standerds of human behavior.

In Athens, the sophists questioned accepted ideas. To them, moral and ethical truths were just opinions not principles. Success was more important. Also Prophets preached a strong code of ethics. They promoted not only personal morality but a morally just community, calling on the rich and powerful to protect the poor and the weak. Courage- the courage of one’s convictions Honesty- the quality or the fact of being honest; uprightness and fairness Loyalty- allegiance, commitment, and dedication Respect- to show regard or consideration.

Responsibility- the state or position of being responsable Civility- courtesy; politness Compassion- distress, aqainst another person Perseverance- continued steady belief or efforts Feudalism Feadalism was a set of legal and military customs in medievel Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, wich, broadly ordering, was a system for ordering society around relationships devived from the holding of land in exchange for service and labor. Absolute Power.

Absolute monarchy is a monarchial form of goverment in wich the monarch execerises ultimate governing authority as head state and head of goverment. Absolute Monarchy- ruler with complete authority over the goverment and lives of the people he or she governs Due Process- a legal process “due” to each individual to ensure justice Habeus Corpus- someone being held in jail without being charged with a crime Limited Monarchy- goverment with monarch power Magna Carta- an english charter originally issued in the year 1215.