Apush Chapter 3 Outline

A.) The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism Martin Luther denounces the authority of the priests in 1517 and spurred religious reform throughout Europe which spread for more than a century. John Calvin elaborated on Luthers ideas. a. Calvinism became dominant theological ideal throughout various religious sects such as Puritans, Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots, and the Dutch reform Church. b. 1536, Institutes of Christian Religion. God all powerful/all good, humans weak and wicked due to sin. Calvinists ideas developed in England around the time that King Henry VIII broke ties with Catholic Church in 1530's and became head of Church of England Led to creation of the Puritans

B.) Pilgrims End their Pilgrimage to Plymouth Most famous congregation of pilgrims fled from Holland in 1608 for religious freedom as purified Protestants. a. America was a religious refuge

b. Under Virginia Company gained rights to settle from the Crown. Mayflower, sixty five days at sea, missed destination and landed off coast of New England 1620 with 102 people. a. Captain Miles Standish: Indian fighter and negotiator later on b. Chose Plymouth Bay as final stopping point, outside domain of Virginia Company, becoming squatters without legal right to land Mayflower Compact

Only 44/102 settlers survived first winter in America Plymouth not important politically or economically

Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth 1. Separatist Pilgrims extremists, “purest puritans” a. Sought to reform the Church of England b. 1629 parliament sanctioned anti-Puritan persecution of Archbishop William Laud. 2. Non-Separatist puritans secured charter 3. Massachusetts Bay enterprise was thriving. a. expedition 1630, eleven vessels carrying almost a thousand immigrants

Building Bay Colony 1.enterprise extended to freeman, white ales belonging to puritan congregations 2. freemen annually elected for governor and assistants 3.purpose of Gov. to enforce god's laws

4. religious leaders had enormous influence in Bible Commonwealth Bay colonists somewhat exercised separation of church and state E.) Trouble in Bible Commonwealth Bay colony enjoyed high degree of social harmony, which stemmed from common beliefs Salem minister, Roger Williams, young leader with radical ideas F.) Rhode Island “Sewer” Roger Williams fled to Rhode island in 1636 with help of the indians outcasts clustered around Williams exercised simple manhood suffrage Scattered settlements eventually dotted Rhode Island, consisted mostly of exiles or those who couldn't stand Massachusetts G.) New England Spreads Out Valley of Connecticut one of few fertile lands in New England, attracted English/ Dutch Settlers 1639, settlers of new Connecticut River Valley drafted fundamental orders New Haven 1638

H.) Puritans Vs. Indians Spread of English settlements led to clash with Natives Local Indians first befriended settlers. Then conflicts arose Seeds of Colonial Unity 1.) 1643 four colonies banded together to form New England Confedaration 2.) Confederation almost solely Puritan 3.) Federation first mile stone closer to colonial unity 4.)Charles II took throne, England regained control

J.) Andros Promotes first American Revolution 1689 Dominion of New England created by royal authority Sir Endmund Andros leader of Dominion, appointed Glorious Revolution 1688

K.) Old Netherlands at New Netherlands Oppressed Netherland people rebelled seventeenth century Dutch “golden age” Company employed English Explorer Henry Hudson in seek of greater riches Dutch East India Company, Dutch West India Company, outposts in Africa and Brazil New Netherland, planted in Hudson river valley 1623-1624 Dutch colony took strong aristocratic themes and retained it for generations

Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors 1.) Swedes trespassed on Dutch preserves, planting New Sweden on Delaware river 2.) Golden Age of Sweden, during/following thirty years war, a. King Gustavus Adolphus promoted Protestantism

3.) Dutch dispatched small military expedition 1655 who kicked the Swedes out of the Dutch area

M.)Dutch inNew York 1. Dutch lacked strong trade, destined to become English 2. English regarded Dutch as Intruders 3.) English took over Dutch settlements and held territory from Maine to the Carolinas

N.) Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania Quakers arose in England during mid 1600s Simple, devoted people William Penn was attracted to Quaker faith, firmly embraced the faith Quakers widely prosecuted Liberal Policy in Pennsylvania

O.) Quaker Pennsylvania and it's Neighbors Penn launched his colony in 1681 Philadelphia more formally planned than most colonial cities Actually purchased land from Natives, didn't steal it Proprietary regime mostly liberal and included representative assembly elected by landowners, no tax supported state church freedom of worship

attracted rich mix of ethnic groups