Apartheid in South Africa

Apartheid, means separateness in Afrikaans, an official language of South Africa. It was used against the Blacks in order to let the White minority rule. It meant that people were classed according to the colour of their skin, and country they came from. There were four main groups: Blacks which was 77% of the overall population. 2) Whites, 13% (including the Afrikaners and the English). 3) Coloured, 8% (mixed races). and 4) Asians, 2%. Nearly all of the Blacks were made to live in unacceptable, unhygienic and cramped conditions.

Blacks weren't allowed to enter White neighbourhoods unless under very strict circumstances, where they were employed (doing very degrading jobs eg. Cleaning up after there bosses, doing the dirty work) by a White person. Even if they were lucky enough to get a job in a White settlement (there wasn't any or hardly any jobs in the designated areas in which the Blacks were forced to live) they would still have to live in appalling conditions with a lot of other Blacks.

This means that there was a lot of Blacks in a small area, but as a percentage of employed Blacks there was a very small amount. These conditions were introduced by the South African government to make a carefree country were the Whites didn't have to worry about a Black conspiracy. But instead of this happening it caused more of a dilemma. The Blacks thought the Whites were plotting to get rid of them and the Whites thought the opposite. So to make sure that the White minority rained, they started to enforce the apartheid with violence.

They were enforced by police and sometimes even armies. If you were a Black and you were found in a White neighbourhood , without a passport type thing that guaranteed you worked for a White person, then you would be thrown in jail. In most cases the Blacks were treated as animals and beaten up on a regular bases just like in "The Power Of One". The results of the apartheid are made clear by the housing and the education of many South Africans. There are so many South Africans and only a small percentage have a reasonably education.

Some of the racial issues still occur, like beatings and small riots, but not as much as used to happened when rally's were set up against apartheid. A lot of people would be killed, mostly blacks in the riots. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela a political activist, lawyer and a leader was a ruler/leader for the ANC (African National Congress). This corporation is the longest standing black liberation group. Nelson, being the son of a tribal chief was able to attend school at a Methodist Mission Centre in a place called Healdtown and go to University at Fort Hare.

He studied law and correspondence. In 1940 Nelson was expelled from his college for organising a student strike. He continued his studies, and got his degree at the University of South Africa. After he finished his degree, in 1942, Mandela joined the ANC where he rose to a position of leadership by the early 1950's. A few years later Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison for sabotage, treason and trying to overthrow the government. He was released in February 1990 as a order from the president of South Africa, F. W. De Klerk.

After he was released Mandela began to "negotiate the political future" of the post-apartheid South Africa (which was almost everybody). Nelson Mandela for nearly two decades worked to get together different arguments and to organise antigovernment protests. In 1952, he then started up the first Black law partnership with a colleague of his. Limited by the police on a number of occasions, Nelson went on trial with 156 others on charges of treason. The trial took 6 years to conclude and all of the 157 people were all found not guilty and were let go.

Mandela was arrested again in 1962 and was sentenced to 5 years in jail for starting a strike and travelling without the proper documents. As a result of additional charges Nelson Mandela was given a life sentence (June 1964). Following his before mentioned release (see paragraph two) Mandela hosted strategy talks with other ANC leaders from Zambia. He went on a world tour in 1990 to the United States to address the United Nations, in New York and to meet with President George Bush at the White House.

Bibliography

Bradley, Dr John

"Human Rights"

Franklin Watts Ltd, 1991

Grolier Multimedia Encyclopaedia

Grolier Electronic Publishing. Inc, 1993

World Book Multimedia Encyclopaedia

World Book, Inc