Ap World History Chapter 8 Notes

In Search of Political and Social OrderA. Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and His School1. Confuciusa. Educator and political authorityb. Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples 2. Confucian Ideasa. Basically honesty and ethical in characterb. Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order c. Concentrated on formation of Junzi “superior individuals” d. Edited and assembled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study 3. Key Confucian Values

a. Ren: A sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence b. Li: A sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders c. Xiao: Filial piety, familial obligation.

d. Develop personal ethics and Junzi for bringing order to China 4. Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school a. Believed in the goodness of human nature (Ren) b. Supported government by generosity and humanity 5. Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature a. Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests b. Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society c. Supported moral education and good public behavior B Daoism Featured Prominent Critics of Confucian Activism 1. Preferred rational reflection and self-examination, a life in harmony with nature 2. Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing a. Classic of the Way and of Virtue.

3. Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy)4. The Dao–the way of nature, the way of the cosmosa. Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world b. Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing yet accomplishes everything c. Humans should adapt their behavior to the lifeless and easy nature of the Dao d. Desire and activism had only brought the world to chaos e. Doctrine of Wuwei: disengagement from worldly affairs, simple life f. Support small, self-sufficient communities.

5. Political implications: served as counterbalance to Confucian activism

Ian CabaloOctober 2012Period TwoAP World HistoryUnit 2: Chapter 8: The Unification of China

In Search of Political and Social Order (continued)

C Legalism1. The doctrine of practical and efficient statecraft a. No concern with ethics and moralityb. No concern with the principles governing nature 2. Shang Yang (ca. 390-338 B.C.E.), chief minister of Qin and Legalist writer 3. Han Feizi (ca. 280-233 B.C.E.) synthesized Legalist ideas in essays 4. Legalist doctrine

a. The state’s strength was in agriculture and military force b. Discouraged commerce, education, and the arts c. Harnessing self-interest of the people for the needs of the state d. Called for harsh penalties even for minor infractions e. Advocated collective responsibility before the law f. Not popular among Chinese, but practical; put end to Period of Warring StatesThe Unification of China

A. The Qin Dynasty1. Qin, Located in west China, adopted Legalist policiesa. Encouraged agriculture, resulted in strong economyb. Organized a powerful army equipped with iron weapons c. Conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E. 2. The first emperor was Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.)a. Established centralized imperial ruleb. Project of connecting and extending the Great Wallc. Buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin d. Burned all books except some with utilitarian value3. Policies of centralizationa. Standardization of laws, currencies, weights, measures b. Standardization of scripts4. Tomb of the First Emperor, who died 210 B.C.E.a. Tomb was underground palace with army of life-size terra-cotta figures b. Site of the tomb since 19745. The collapse of the Qin dynastya. Massive public works generated tremendous ill will among the people b. Waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E. c. Short-lived dynasty, but left deep marks in Chinese history

Ian CabaloOctober 2012Period TwoAP World HistoryUnit 2: Chapter 8: The Unification of ChinaThe Unification of China (continued)B. The Early Han Dynasty1. Liu Bang; persistent and methodical; by 206 B.C.E. restored order 2. Early Han policiesa. Sought a middle way between Zhou decentralization and Qin overcentralization b. Han Wudi, the Martial Emperor (reigned 141-87 B.C.E.), emphasized centralization and expansion 3. Han centralization;adopted Legalist policies.

a. Built an enormous goverment to rule the empireb. Continued to build roads and canalsc. Demanded taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries d. Imperial ownership on production of iron and salte. Established Confucian educational system for training goverment 4. Han imperial expansiona. Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Koreab. Han organized vast armies to invade Xiongnu territory (nomads from steppes) c. Han enjoyed uncontested hegemony in east and central Asia From Economic Prosperity to Social DisorderA. Productivity and Prosperity During the Former Han1. Patriarchal social structurea. Women’s subordination; Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women b. Children obey and honor parents2. Vast majority of population were cultivators3. Iron metallurgy: farming tools, utensils, and weapons4. Silk textiles; sericulture spread all over China during the Han 5. Paper production; replaced silk and bamboo as writing material 6. Population growth: twenty million to sixty million from 220 B.C.E. to 9 C.E. B. Economic and Social Difficulties.

1. Expeditions consumed the empire’s surplusa. Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy individuals b. Taxes and land confiscations discouraged investment in manufacture and trade 2. Social tensions, caused by class systems between the poor and rich 3. Problems of land distribution

4. The reign of Wang Mang (9-23 C.E.)a. Land reforms by the “socialist emperor”b. Overthrown by revolts, 23 C.E.

Ian CabaloOctober 2012Period TwoAP World HistoryUnit 2: Chapter 8: The Unification of China

From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder (continued)C. The Later Han Dynasty (25-220 C.E.).1. Yellow Turban Uprising: revolt due to problems of land distribution 2. Collapse of the Han.a. Factions at court paralyzed the central government.b. Han empire dissolved; China was divided into regional kingdoms In Search of Political and Social OrderConfucius started a school based on the honesty and ethical in character, concentrated on formation of Junzi, Zhou disciplines, and key Confucians. Mencius believed in the goodness of human nature and generosity and Xunzi believed moral education and selfish interest. Daoism was found by Laozi, which was the classic way of virtue. Legalist policies included strengths in agricultural and military force, discourage in commerce, education, and the arts, harnessing self-interest, harsh penalties. The Unification of China.

The Qin and Han Dynasty encouraged agriculture and adopted legalist policies. Qin also had conquered other states and unified China with their organized armies equipped with iron weapons. Qin Shihuangdi established imperial rule, continued expansion on the Great Wall, buried 460 scholars alive, and burned all books exception to books with utilitarian value. Standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures and scripts were created. Han also, built an enormous government, taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries, imperial ownership on production of iron and salt. Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Korea. From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder.

3. Patriarchal social structurea. Women’s subordination; Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women b. Children obey and honor parents4. Vast majority of population were cultivators5. Iron metallurgy: farming tools, utensils, and weapons6. Silk textiles; sericulture spread all over China during the Han 7.Paper production; replaced silk and bamboo as writing material 8. Population growth: twenty million to sixty million from 220 B.C.E. to 9 C.E. D. Economic and Social Difficulties.

1. Expeditions consumed the empire’s surplusa. Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy individuals b. Taxes and land confiscations discouraged investment in manufacture and trade 2. Social tensions, caused by class systems between the poor and rich 3. Problems of land distribution.

4. The reign of Wang Mang (9-23 C.E.)a. Land reforms by the “socialist emperor”b. Overthrown by revolts, 23 C.E.E. The Later Han Dynasty (25-220 C.E.)1. Yellow Turban Uprising: revolt due to problems of land distribution 2. Collapse of the Hana. Factions at court paralyzed the central governmentb. Han empire dissolved; China was divided into regional kingdoms.