Algae for Fuel

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070130090717.htm

http://earth2tech.com/2008/03/27/15-algae-startups-bringing-pond-scum-to-fuel-tanks/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae

http://www.solazyme.com/news080122.shtml

http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?ch=specialsections&sc=biofuels&id=19438&a= http://www.oilgae.com/

http://www.acore.org/programs/bcc.php?_kk=algae%20ethanol&_kt=6dedf9f4-fc3e-4c76-808b-c1d71f8cd950 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algaculture

http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/2005/06/university_of_n.html http://www.algaelink.com/

http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-9933355-54.html

http://www.algaebiofuelsummit.com/

http://www.bizjournals.com/eastbay/stories/2008/01/21/daily22.html http://www.ecosherpa.com/green-energy/algae-biofuel-becoming-a-reality/ http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/earth/4213775.html

http://www.energyandcapital.com/articles/biofuel-algae-biodiesel/395 ** from UNH.edu http://www.unh.edu/p2/biodiesel/article_alge.html http://www.greencarcongress.com/2006/06/petrosun_drilli.html ** video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i82CXQX4yq4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sBJ66Oim_Xw&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OfYAtSnJNo&feature=related

- Companies working on algae as biofuel 15 we should watch GreenFuel Technologies in Cambridge MA – builds algae bioreactor systems Petrosun, Rio Hondo, TX – biofuel production by farming algae Chevorn Shell Solazyme in South San Francisco, deal w/Chevron – how to increase biofuel yields, is using fermentation, rather than photosynthesis, to grow algae oil that can be tuned for different purposes, such as jet fuel or edible oils. Blue Marble Energy, Seattle – recovers algae infested waters and converts to biofuel Inventure Chemical, Seattle – jet fuel

Solena, Washington – gasified algae Live Fuels, Menlo park, CA – algae or biodiesel Solix Biofuels, Ft. Collins, CO – biocrude Aurora Biofuels, UC @ Berkely – genetically modified algae to increase production Aquaflow Binomics, New Zealand – using wild algae for biofuel Bionavitas, Snoqualmie, WA – algae production from bioreactors Mighty, Algae Biofuels,

Bodega Algae, MIT – Seambiotic, Israel – Cellena, HI – joint venture w/ HR Biopetroleum & Shell Oil Co. PetroAlgae,

Thesis

Algae the possibilities, biodiesel for cars, biocrude, jet fuel, fuel for power plants, ethanol, hydrogen,

What are algae? According to WikipediA encyclopedia they “are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. The largest and most complex marine forms are called seaweeds. They are photosynthetic, like plants, and "simple" because they lack the many of the distinct organs found in land plants”

•Algae can be used to make biodiesel (see algaculture), bioethanol and biobutanol and by some estimates can produce vastly superior amounts of vegetable oil, compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose. •Algae can be grown to produce biohydrogen. In 1939 a German researcher named Hans Gaffron, while working at the University of Chicago, observed that the algae he was studying, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green-alga), would sometimes switch from the production of oxygen to the production of hydrogen •Algae can be grown to produce biomass, which can be burned to produce heat and electricity. [9] •Algae can be used in Oil Production which could replace the Petrol and Other gas products in the near future “

The algal biodiesel fueling the car is made through Solazyme's proprietary process for manufacturing high-value, functionally-tailored oils from algae.

This process, which uses standard industrial fermentation equipment, yields a biofuel that significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is biodegradable, nontoxic and safe. Solazyme is currently producing thousands of gallons of algal oil and recently signed a biodiesel feedstock development and testing agreement with Chevron Technology Ventures, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc.” http://www.solazyme.com/news080122.shtml Certain types of algae are rich in oil

Energy The U.S. government projects domestic energy demand ($700 billion in 2000) will increase by approximately 50% over the next two decades, and the global energy market is projected to grow even more quickly. http://www.solazyme.com/energy.shtml

How do they extract, ?crush? With 50 percent capacity, one acre of algae could produce 40 kilograms of hydrogen per day. That would bring the cost of producing hydrogen to $2.80 a kilogram. At this price, hydrogen could compete with gasoline, since a kilogram of hydrogen is equivalent in energy to a gallon of gasoline.

http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=19438&ch=specialsections&sc=biofuels&pg=2

algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources especially for biodiesel production, for two main reasons (1) The yields of oil from algae are orders of magnitude higher than those for traditional oilseeds, and (2) Algae can grow in places away from the farmlands & forests, thus minimising the damages caused to the eco- and food chain systems.

There is a third interesting reason as well: Algae can be grown in sewages and next to power-plant smokestacks where they digest the pollutants and give us oil! . . . algae grown in CO2-enriched air can yield oil that can be converted into biodiesel. Such an approach can contribute to solving two major problems: air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution, and future crises due to a shortage of energy sources. . .

Algal Chemical Composition

Algae are made up of eukaryotic cells (Eukaryote – from Wikipedia). These are cells with nuclei and organelles. All algae all have plastids, the bodies with chlorophyll that carry out photosynthesis. But the various lines of algae have different combinations of chlorophyll molecules. Some have only Chlorophyll A, some A and B, while other lines, A and C.

All algea primary comprise of the following, in varying proportions: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats and Nucleic Acids. While the percentages vary with the type of algae, there are algae types that are comprised up to 40% of their overall mass by fatty acids. It is this fatty acid (oil) that can be extracted and converted into biodiesel.

Table 1 - Chemical Composition of Algae Expressed on A Dry Matter Basis (%) StrainProteinCarbohydratesLipidsNucleic acid Scenedesmus obliquus50-5610-1712-143-6 Scenedesmus quadricauda47-1.9- Scenedesmus dimorphus8-1821-5216-40- Chlamydomonas rheinhardii481721- Chlorella vulgaris51-5812-1714-224-5 Chlorella pyrenoidosa57262- Spirogyra sp.6-2033-6411-21- Dunaliella bioculata4948- Dunaliella salina57326- Euglena gracilis39-6114-1814-20- Prymnesium parvum28-4525-3322-381-2 Tetraselmis maculata52153- Porphyridium cruentum28-3940-579-14- Spirulina platensis46-638-144--92-5 Spirulina maxima60-7113-166-73-4.5 Synechoccus sp.6315115 Anabaena cylindrica43-5625-304-7- Source: Becker, (1994)

Algal-oil is very high in unsaturated fatty acids. Some UFA's found in different algal-species include: •Arachidonic acid(AA) •Eicospentaenoic acid(EPA) •Docasahexaenoic acid(DHA) •Gamma-linolenic acid(GLA) •Linoleic acid(LA)

.http://www.oilgae.com/

Difficulties of growing algae, need …xxx how much to supply the earth, algae needs sunlight, if grown in ponds only the top layer gets the light, so as in this picture many companies are trying to grow the algae in tubes, thus more light gets through and grows more algae or algae needs a source of carbon dioxide to grow. Thus the hope of connecting these two strategies, help other companies with the expenditure of carbon dioxide and a bioreactor growing algae that will use the pollutants of another company, the more this is put into practice the less CO2 will enter our atmosphere

Bioreactors used to grow algae for use as fuel and animal feed. (Credit: PetroAlgae)

“Algae, plainly referred to as pond scum, can produce up to 10,000 gallons of oil per acre and can be grown virtually anywhere.” The world today relies on fossil fuels to supply much of its energy, and there are currently 13 terawatts of energy used per year. A terawatt is 1,000 billion watts, and Seefeldt said usage is predicted to double to 26 terawatts by the year 2050. Fossil fuels are expensive, finite and generate greenhouse gasses that many believe are harming the environment, said Seefeldt” “http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070130090717.htm