The Medicines Act (1968) requires that the pharmacist and dispensing doctor is responsible for supplying medication. They can only dispense on the receipt of a signed prescription form an authorised person. eg doctor, nurse practitioner. The Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) This prevents the misuse of Controlled drugs. The Misuse of Drugs and the Misuse of Drugs(safe Custody) regulations 2007) specifies about handling, record keeping and storage of Controlled Drugs. The Safer Management of Controlled Drugs Regulations (2006) specifies how Controlled drugs are stored, administered and disposed of.
All controlled drugs must be kept in a locked cabinet that’s complies with these regulations. Administration of all controlled drugs must be recorded, signed and countersigned. The acts relating to Work practice are outlined in The Health and @Safety at Work Act (1974) which outlines regulations to reduce the risk posed by hazardous substances. COSHH, The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health, regulations (1999) employers must take all reasonable measures to protect their employees from the dangers of substances or materials that they may come into contact with at work.
The Hazardous Waste Regulations (2005) defines household and industrial waste and includes medicines that are no longer required. Care homes can return medicines to the supplying pharmacy for destruction but nursing homes must use a clinical waste company to dispose of their unwanted medicines. Learning Outcome 2. Know about common types of medication and their use. 2. 1 Analgesics e. g. paracetamol, Ibrprofen, Analgesics are used to relieve pain such as headaches and aches and pains. Addiction to painkillers can happen if taken over a long period of time.
Also, irritation of the stomach, liver and kidney damage can occur with long term use. Antibiotics e. g. amoxicillin Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria they do not work on viral infections. The most common side effects are diarrhoea, feeling sick and vomiting. Some people get a fungal infection such as thrush after treatment with antibiotics for a longer period of time. More serious side-effects of antibiotics include kidney problems, blood disorders and allergic reactions. However, these are rare.
Antidepressants e. g. citalopram Antidepressants work by changing the chemical balance in the brain and that can in turn change the psychological state of the mind such as for depression. Common side effects include: blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, increased appetite, nausea, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping. Other side effects include: dry mouth, constipation, and sweating. 2. 3 Unexpected adverse reactions can happen from any drug that an individual is taking. An adverse reaction to penicillin, can cause anaphylactic shock; the signs of this are the swelling of the lips or face, a rash on the skin they may also have breathing difficulties.
This is why it is important that all information about an individual is recorded in their care plan and MAR chart. Other severe adverse reactions could include a fever and skin blistering; if adverse reactions are not treated they could fatal. These usually occur within an hour of the medications being taken. Sometimes adverse reactions can develop a few weeks after and may cause damage to the kidneys or liver.
When individuals experience adverse reactions to medicines my workplace policy is to 1 / 3 inform the Manager immediately explaining the adverse reactions, the Manager will then inform the individual’s GP and pharmacist and seek advice, unless the reactions are so serious then an ambulance will be called – the medication will also be stopped. I must continue to observe the individual and monitor them, speaking to them and looking at them so as to ensure that the individual is not deteriorating. All adverse reactions and the actions taken following the advice given must be recorded in the individual’s care plan, daily report and MAR. ’ 2.
4 There are various routes medication can be administered. Orally – Most medicines are administered via this route. Tablets, capsules, liquids and suspensions are taken orally. Sublingually – This is where tablets or liquids are administered under the tongue as they absorb very quickly. GTN spray and tablets for angina are a good example of the sublingually route. Inhalation administration – This method is used mostly for patients who have respiratory problems such as asthma and COPD.
The medicine is delivered directly to the lungs. Inhalers and nebules , for use in the nebulizer, are examples of this route of delivery Intramuscular (IM) injection administration – This route can only be performed by a doctor or trained nurse. This medicine is injected directly into large muscles in the body. Mainly the legs or bottom. Intravenous (IV) injection administration –. This can only be performed by a doctor or trained nurse The medicine is administered directly into the veins. Medicines are absorbed rapidly into the body via this route. Antibiotics are a good example of IV medication when infections do not respond to oral antibiotics.
Subcutaneous injection administration – With this injection, the medicine is administered directly under the skin. A common example of a medicine administered via this route is insulin. Medicines are injected in the fat layer beneath the skin. Instillation administration – This method of administration is in a liquid form and is instilled via the eyes, nose or ears Rectal administration – Suppositories administered via this route, they are absorbed very quickly into the body.
They are inserted high into the rectum. Only members of staff who have had suitable training and have authorisation should administer via this route as it is very invasive. Vaginal administration – Pessaries and creams are applied using a special vaginal applicator. They are mainly used to treat vaginal conditions like vaginal thrush. Again this a invasive route of delivery. Topical application administration – Creams gels and ointments are applied directly to the skin. Mainly used for skin conditions but can also be used as a route for an analgesic. Gloves should be worn when applying creams to protect against absorption through the administers skin.
Transdermal patch administration – The transdermal patch is becoming a more common route of administration. Examples include fentanyl patches (painkiller), HRT patches and nicotine patches. The drug is slowly released slowly from the patch over a set period of time and is absorbed through the skin and into the bloodstream. 2. 4 Examples of medication that demands the measurement of specific physiological measurements are: Insulin, blood is taken by a pinprick to measure the amount of glucose in the blood before insulin is administered.
Blood pressure should be monitored so the correct dose of hypertension medication is prescribed. Blood levels need to be checked in hypothyroid patients to insure thyroxin is taken at the correct dose. Learning outcome 3. Understand procedures and techniques for the administration of medication 3. 1.. Equipment may include: medicine trolley, Medicine pots, spoons, syringes, Nebulisers, wipes, drinking glasses, water jug, disposal bag, medication administration record sheets/charts. Gloves must be worn and hands washed before and after, when administering medication by all routes.
For those with respiratory difficulties Inhalers are used, they can be administered via the inhaler 2 / 3 itself or via an areochamber which ensures the correct dose has entered the lungs Nebulisers can also be used and work differently, a liquid is placed into a chamber at the base of a mask, a fine mist of the medication is released into the mask and the individual inhales. Tablets should be administered using a non-touch technique these should be administered; direct from the MDS system, if being used, which is tablets and capsules only contained in blister packs. Medication cups and spoons can be used to administer these.
Transdermal medications come in the form of patches that are applied to the skin, gloves are always needed and wipes, to clean the skin before applying patch. Topical medications come in the form of creams and gels and instructions should be followed, it will tell you how much to apply. Gloves are needed to apply these, as they can be absorbed into the skin very quickly. Instillation medications come in the form of drops( these may be kept in the fridge) or ointments and can be instilled via the eyes, nose or ears. Gloves should always be used when administering Instillation medication. 3. 2. Full name, address and DOB of the patient.
Ensure prescription is dated and still valid. Ensure it is signed by the appropriate prescriber, complete with their registration number and details regarding the address of their practice. Make sure it’s printed from a computer or written in ink if done by hand. Make sure the drug/preparation/product is named, complete with strength, dose and quantity, the route and form, when the medication should be started and ended. Other special instructions, any known allergies. Other Methods may include: picture of the individual or identification bracelet. POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).