Address evidence collection issues as well as problems that arise with determining jurisdiction and case backlog. The use of computers and the internet, in general, has become a new lease of life with the advancement of new technologies and modes of communication. The advent of the internet has become a boon to people in business, lawyers, teachers, researchers, and even criminals. Nonetheless, as people venture into the cyber-space, privacy is not guaranteed, and crimes are no longer happening to the physical space, but also the virtual cyberspace too. Over the last decades, scholars (Goodman, 1997; Swire, 2009) have maintained that computer crimes pose a challenge to law enforcement.
Holt & Bossler (2012) researched how local enforcement administrators in two southeastern cities respond to various cases of computer crimes. The results indicated numerous issues that hinder the investigations of computer crime, including, the difficulty experienced in investigating invisible crimes- investigating internet crimes can be cumbersome. First, a person has to install a lock on the data that is to undergo investigation, and then the lock can allow manipulation of the data by viewing it without editing. Also, extraction software will be required to permit the investigator to view such data. Insufficient funds to acquire and maintain technology is another challenge. Moreover, there is difficulty in retaining and training officers. The respondents in both cities reported having little training in computer crime investigation. In general, only young and those with formal education had received training, but overall, they reported having little experience in previous cases involving computer crimes. Besides, there is a lack of public outcry to focus on investigations that involve computer crimes.
A small body of law enforcement indicates that agencies do not place value on computer crimes unless it is related to child pornography. Additionally, police officers view computer crimes as a distraction to the more severe offenses. In this regard, they believe that computer crimes issues should be dealt with federal and state agencies and not local law enforcement. However, according to Brenner & Koops (2004), jurisdiction in cybercrimes cases is a tricky affair because, in practice, no county can claim jurisdiction. Reason for this will be the assumption that other countries have suffered more damage. For example, a website company in German found itself indicted in Singapore for spreading pornographic material (Brenner et al., 2005). Consequently, it was ordered that the owners of the company appear in court in Belgium. In Belgium, minors entail persons less than 18 years, while in Germany, the age limit is 14 years. Subsequently, the business is legal in Germany but illegal in other countries. Therefore, jurisdiction matters abound, and no country is clear on what constitutes jurisdiction. Overall, the issue of cybercrime is a daunting challenge to the judiciary, while a majority of cases are related to manufacturing and distribution, cases involving the use of computers are on the rise, and the federal judiciary system is slow to embrace technology. Subsequently, there is a growing backlog on cases involving examinations of computer forensic. Therefore, it is essential that federal agencies fund programs that allow officers to attend mandatory forensic training. 2. Discuss current training police receive about computer crime.
Many organizations are increasing awareness of cyber training programs to cope with increased cyber threats and the resulting demand for trained police professionals. Some of these resources training include; Defence Cyber Crime Centre (DC3). Its mission is to deliver sophisticated digital forensic lab services, criminal investigations, law enforcement, advocating for counter-terrorism and counterintelligence, and cyber technical training. Further, the center provides classroom and web-based incident response training to Department of Defence agencies to protect information systems.
In addition, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) – cyber shield alliance provides resources to the State, local and law enforcement partners through the Law Enforcement Enterprise Portal to assist in reporting cyber incidents. Both the FBI and police have access to the Bureau’s training curriculum. Further, Cisco, the network supplier, recently volunteered to provide training to more than 120,000 police officers across Scotland, Wales, and England (Scroxton, 2018). The training aimed to make the United Kingdom the safest place to engage in online activities.
The officers can access training designed for raising awareness and their knowledge of cyber threats and cyber-crime. Also, they will gain insights on the procedures that can be used to defend networks. Through this program, the United Kingdom is one of the powerful nations, will be able to deal with criminals that exploit individuals. Therefore, all police officers must undergo training to understand the basics of cybersecurity. By doing so, they will expand their knowledge, and this will improve security in both the personal and professional lives. It is also paramount that police officers should work in hand with IT professionals to prevent cyber attacks. Having such a relationship will ensure active investigation and also allow for rapid recovery of affected filed and systems.