Introduction: David Mackenzie Ogilvy was born in England on June 23, 1911. In 1948, he founded the New York-based ad agency Hewitt, Ogilvy, Benson & Mather (which eventually became Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide), with the financial backing of London agency Mather & Crowther. He had never written an advertisement in his life. He wrote a memo to one of his partners thirty-three years later that sums up his life. He wrote: Will Any Agency Hire This Man?
He is 38, and unemployed. He dropped out of college. He has been a cook, a salesman, a diplomatist and a farmer. He knows nothing about marketing and had never written any copy. He professes to be interested in advertising as a career (at the age of 38!) and is ready to go to work for $5,000 a year. I doubt if any American agency will hire him.
However, a London agency did hire him. Three years later he became the most famous copywriter in the world, and in due course built the tenth biggest agency in the world. The moral: it sometimes pays an agency to be imaginative and unorthodox in hiring.  David Ogilvy is one of the iconic ad man`s whose contribution changed the concept of advertisements. ROLLS ROYCE Advertisement:
Rolls Royce advertisement by David Ogilvy was one of the most famous ads that changed the advertising industry forever making history. He wanted to place Rolls Royce cars within it`s market with a great success and in order to do that he came up with the brilliant idea of using the technical editorial of the motor magazine itself in the development of the advertisement. This taught the copywriters that the best advertising ideas can come from the product itself. Advertisement objective:
To place Rolls Royce in it`s market in such a way that consumers can easily distinguish it from other luxury cars that also claimed to be comfortable, quick and classy thus increasing the sales. Target Audience: After the world War II since the society at that time was male dominant . They were the people who made decisions and were consumers of luxury cars.
Headline: “At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock” The Quote marks suggest that he pulled the original content from the magazine referring to the quality of the product. This was the original paragraph of the motor magazine that Ogilvy referred for this advertisement, ‘At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise comes from the electric clock’.  He considered Power headline one of the most important elements in the success of the advertisement. He said “On the average, five times as many people read the headline as read the body copy. When you have written your headline, you have spent eighty cents out of your dollar.” ~ David Ogilvy
The ad contains the headline and then the subheading followed by the body copy. This is mainly the responsibility of the creative department or copywriters. The planning of the ad, deciding the most effective method to reach the audience, contrast and media type or the space to be used for the ad is the responsibility of the media department. The ad shows the car with all it`s glory clearly representing status which the surrounding is also showing. The two kids are also dressed properly marking their higher status and background.
The subheading is the statement by an engineer that is giving the impression that the quality and performance of the car was tested and proven thing. After that the copy body includes the thirteen facts about the car describing it`s qualities. The ad contains the elements appealing to the audience and communicating in the language of the consumers. “I don’t know the rules of grammar. If you’re trying to persuade people to do something, or buy something, it seems to me you should use their language.” ~ David Ogilvy
After world War II Americans have been living in post-war era where the automobile was ultimate status symbol. Having big shiny cars with beautiful girls meant “Get the car, get the girl” or “The girl comes with it” concept. Since it was male dominating society so women were used to add glamour in the ad and make them more appealing as men were in control and major consumers of cars. Ogilvy recognized the similarities between all the luxury automobile offerings and searched for a remarkable trait.
A benefit that spoke to the audience.The ad man knew that the upper class longed for peace and quiet. So by simply pulling a quote from the Technical Editor’s write-up in The Motor, he had his headline: “At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock.”  Reasons why the Headlines were powerful:
1) Specific: In this case, the specific speed makes the reader think that an actual test was conducted to determine this fact. By comparison, the Pierce-Arrows ad reads like hype. 2) Quote marks: The quotation marks around the Rolls Royce headline indicate to the reader that this was a remark made by someone, perhaps by a tester or engineer. And indeed, the subdeck and first bullet point confirm that this is the case.
Again, the Pierce-Arrow headline has none of this. 3) Believability of the claim itself: Notice the change from “only sound” to “loudest noise.” For the reader, conjuring up a mental image of driving in a car in which the electric clock is actually louder than the engine is relatively easy, whereas the mind rejects the idea of a moving car making absolutely no noise except for that of the clock.
Fig1: Some examples of Pierce Arrow ads. Why the Ogilvy Ad was far more modern: The Rolls Royce ads: * Includes engineering and expert testimonials or quotes. * Provides no less than 12 bullet points of factual copy – facts proving the extreme quality, engineering, and attention to detail that goes into making a Rolls Royce * Openly states the price of the car without dancing around the subject.  DDB:
Introduction: In 1949, three enterprising gentlemen, Bill Bernbach, Ned Doyle and Maxwell Dane introduced a new approach to marketing that relied on respect for the consumer, and the power of creativity. Before Bernbach, copywriters and art directors did not work together. He brought them together in the sixties to form the two-pronged creative department that is crucial in today’s advertising industry. Bernbach saw the need for the pictures and words to work together to form a story. With the new development and strength of the creative department, account executives were no longer the sole important and best paid profession and in the office (Dobrow, 1984).
Bernbach also said that advertising was “bringing dead facts to life and making them memorable,” describing the importance of a message’s delivery in addition to the message itself (Dobrow, 1984). Bernbach’s creative formula was known for a big picture in the top two thirds and headline and copy in the remaining bottom third with a great deal of white space. A classic example of this formula is also seen in the “Think Small” campaign (Dobrow, 1984). History of “THINK SMALL”:
Bill Bernbach said that “advertising is fundamentally persuasion and persuasion happens to be not science but an art” (Dobrow, 1984). DDB broke the rules of advertising and created ads that stood out from the rest. They realized that if an ad looked like others, it would get lost in the crowd. The creation of ads that looked drastically different from the competition can clearly been seen in their Volkswagen “Thing Small” campaign. This method of “standing out from the crowd” grew their billings from $25 million to $270 million annually, which placed DDB as the sixth largest agency in the U.S. and the seventh largest in the world in the 1960′s (Dobrow, 1984).
DDB built a print campaign that focused on the Beetle’s form, which was smaller than most of the cars being sold at the time. Print advertisements for the campaign were based mostly on the idea of filling the visual field with white space and a small image of the Beetle, idea that was meant to emphasize the simplicity and minimalism of the vehicle. The text and fine print that appeared at the bottom of the page listed the advantages of owning a small car but also challenged the consumer to go further, to get an insight of what exactly the product is, its advantages and the reasons that can stand behind choosing the Beetle instead of all the other ‘big’ American cars .  Targeted Audience:
The “Think Small” campaign targeted America’s population that consisted of the fifty percent under the age of twenty-five years old. William Bernbach met this change in culture and reached the better-educated, enthusiastic and optimistic people of America through advertising. He reached this target market by creating a campaign that was different, creative and optimistic- similar to young America. He proved that creative work was needed (Dobrow, 1984). The youthful rebellion of driving boomers embraced the car. These young people were daring, thrifty, and willing to drive a funny shaped car and feel proud (Heller, 2001). Volkswagen’s Competition:
In the 1960′s, most car advertisements were similar to the next. Oldsmobile’s headline was: “You’ve got to drive it to believe it!” Chevrolet said: “Filled with grace and great new things.” Buick proclaimed: “You make your ‘someday’ come true now.” Words in the taglines and copy were always describing new, shiny, and big features (Volkswagen “Think Small” ads).
Since men in the 1960s were the primary purchasers of cars, the ads normally featured women. This concept communicated: “get the product, get the girl.” The Beetle took a different approach. The headline was “Think Small” accompanied by copy that highlighted the advantages of driving a smaller car versus a larger car. The print advertisements had a great deal of white space and the product was small.
There were no models being highlighted nor was there color. The ads didn’t market to consumers like the competition by highlighting luxury, space value, and happiness but instead focused on the benefits of small size and affordability. The visual aspects had not been seen before but were very pleasing to the eye. The contrast of empty space caused the Beetle to pop from the page. The unique approach was successfully integrated throughout all of Volkswagen’s print and television ads (Volkswagen “Think Small” ads). Problems:
1. After the World War II Americans became obsessed with muscle cars. The Beetle was manufactured in a plant in Wolfsburg, Germany, which was perceived to make it more challenging to sell the vehicle (being that the car was designed in Nazi Germany). 2. Existing advertisements for automobiles at the time focused on providing as much information as possible to the reader rather than focusing on persuading the reader in purchasing a product, and the advertisements were typically rooted more in fantasy than in reality. 3. Big illustrations
DDB’s talent for creativity created the Volkswagen campaign that featured the “Beetle” in a black and white ad that was not touched up. The tag line was “Think Small.” This was a new example of simplicity that had not been seen before DDB. Advertisements during this time were very heavy in both tag lines and copy. It was normal to see advertisements with very glamorous, stylized photography with heavy copy; when the “Think Small” campaign released, it shocked the public. Taking the risk of going against the norm turned the entire campaign into a success across print, television, poster, and radio advertisements (Dobrow, 1984). Why it was a success:
1. DDB showed that taking the negatives and turning them into positives could be successful. They took the small car and said it was better for parking. Since it was small, it didn’t eat up gas, tires, oil and it didn’t need antifreeze. The ads were honest, just like the car and the consumers they were targeting (Glatzer, 1970). 2. DDB portrayed the Beetle as honest, durable, practical and cheap. This creative strategy proved to be so brilliant that any DDB copywriter could write for Volkswagen (Twitchell, 2000).
3. The Beetle had a strong brand personality (Twitchell, 2000). 4. These car advertisements of the 1960s were visually colorful, with big headlines and large logos. The models were shown happily riding in the cars with a focus on the features of the vehicle (Volkswagen “Think Small” ads). 5. The “Think Small” campaign also stands out for the use of television which had penetrated 90 percent of American homes in mid-sixties. The television spots were somewhat grainy and in black and white, but it created a strong emotional appeal to the consumers and the ads were aimed to sell.
Fig2: More examples of DDB advertisement for the bettle
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The Sixties: The Golden Age of American Advertising. New York, NY: Friendly Press, Inc. [Accessed: 15 May 2013]. 7. Available at: http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/1999/11/22/smallb7.html [Accessed: 17 May 2013]. 8. [online] Available at: http://www.ddrewdesign.com/blog/index.php?cmd=article&id=136 [Accessed: 17 May 2013]. 9. [online] Available at: http://lifeincmyk.wordpress.com/2011/02/09/think-small-or-how-the-way-we-make-ads-was-changed-forever%E2%80%A6/ [Accessed: 15 May 2013].