Accounting and Tax

The world is increasingly adopting an extremely commercial approach to operations (Paulson 99). Every aspect in the economic environment and social systems is increasingly becoming more commercialized as the capitalistic mental has taken over a number of key areas in operations (Paulson 99). The role played by taxation and accounting systems is on the increase due to commercializations and liberalization of operations and markets. Different modes of operations and complexity in modern operations have led to the need for development of different modes of accounting and taxation (Paulson 99).

Original definitions and systems are being replaced by new ones that are deemed to be more relevant to modern day operations. The policies supported by political leaders with regards to these economic factors are seen to be important to the perception that the voters have on them. The overall public, due to improvements in information systems and education levels, have become more aware of the importance of good and relevant policies to not only the development of the economy but to individual development.

It is no longer left for the professionals to understand the complexities and changes in accounting and information systems be it at the policy or implementation level for ordinary citizens are continuously seeking to know more on these concepts (Paulson 73). This paper looks at some of the current trends in accounting and taxation systems in the US. and the impact they have on the development of US. as a nation. The paper looks at a issues in Private and public Company Financial Reporting and their convergence with the international standards.

The other areas that the paper addresses are Cost or Equity Method of Accounting, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Importance of Segregation of Duties, Income tax accruals, Deferred Income taxes and McCain's Vs Obama's tax plan. Introduction Developed economies and especially America's are highly reliant on the development of the business sector (Pratt & Niculita 22 ). The business sector in some of these developed economies contributes immensely to their large domestic income levels.

Financial reporting is an aspect that is integrated into every business system be it profit or non-profit making. Financial reporting is a very important aspect in ensuring accountability and developing the confidence that is of high importance in a capitalistic economy that are characterized by high levels of competition. Financial reporting does not in itself guarantee success in business but helps in providing information that is critical in the development and implementation of economic decisions.

Company Reporting The standard used in financial reporting in the US is the GAAP standard  (Talbott 63). The main reason behind financial reporting for public entities is to meet the needs of external stake holders who due to their positions lack the ability to get the information. Even though the external users of company financial reporting may have access to information, most private companies still choose to prepare the general financial statement.

Even though the GAAP financial accounting standards are aimed at providing the end user with the required information, the management of the company often finds such documents to be of great importance (Talbott 63). Many private companies implement a system where the financial statement include an independent accountant report which is drafted after the report has been audited, reviewed or compiled. The government is not directly responsible for the formulation of the accounting standards in most developed countries and it was until 2002 that the federal government intervened largely on accounting standards  (Talbott 35).

This non-interference is common system in most countries under common law where it is believed that the private sector is well informed and has a good resource backing. It should be noted that the GAAP is not a law that has to be followed though some key financial authorities have made it compulsory for public companies to adhere to standard (Ricardo & Kolthammer 53). It should be noted that the GAAP standards for the private sectors are set by different bodies which operate under different assumptions, principles and constraints from those of the public sector.