A duty within the workforce to show equality

Another factor which contributes to sexism is that there is a 'fear of success', as women's traditional expectations have got them into practicing 'success avoidance' and therefore prevents them from believing that it is possible to take the role of an executive. Another factor which is related to this article is the notion of "a woman's culture" this shows that women aren't 'fearful' of success instead they are aware of what constitutes achievements, which is critical of leading market driven society (2001, page 206, 8).

The article also states how various countries such as Norway have taken the pressure of having more women recruited at top levels. The Government wants 40% of board seats to be occupied by women and it is threatening legislation if companies do not comply. However, protests have lead to complaints that good male candidates are being ignored in the panic to comply. With the consequentialist approach and the utilitarianism analysis shows how a group of individuals are affected as the result of the decision not to allow women to have positions in higher level restricts company performance and efficiency and effective running.

The organisations benefits aren't maximized as the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people aren't increased. The costs and benefits for the employees are decreased as women are offended and don't have the opportunity to show their capabilities. The utilitarian theory can help resolve such conflicts and encourage an objective way to approach to such a moral- decision making. The teleological ethics systems take on a results-oriented approach therefore calculating the greatest good can be difficult.

Discrimination here is seen as unethical. The Golden Rule which states ( 2001, page 91, 7) "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" signifies the company did not think that their decision to be discriminating an individual or group can happen to them at anytime. Therefore as stated by Freeman's Stakeholder (2001, page 328 to 329, 8) theory narrow definition stakeholders should be treated fairly and the doctrine of fair contracts should be employed, with the rules of 'veil of ignorance' being followed.

Therefore other directors should have a duty of care towards stakeholders including women executives. Aristotle (2001, page 27, 7) believed that "everyone can learn how to behave from experience and that we become moral by working at it". Sexual abuse and harassment is the second main issue of sex discrimination, Taylor defines sexual abuse and harassment as (2001, page 209, 8) "any interaction between two or more individuals with sexual implications or overtones in which at least one of the individuals involved is a devalued person.

However there must also be a distinction between the perpetrator(s) and victim(s), which indicates that the interaction is neither solicited nor wanted by the victim(s)". Many ethical issues are raised as the victim is seriously affected and their right and values are degraded by such harassment. An article from (2003, The Guardian, 11) which has shown an individual who was affected by such sexual abuse as directors allegedly drove her close to a nervous breakdown. Men on board of the Healthcare recruitment company: Match Group sent her sexually explicit e-mails, "treated her with a mixture of ridicule and contempt".

Two other city investors appointed a new chairman also treated women as "sex objects". She was later unfairly dismissed because they "did not like working with a woman". She lost her i?? 190,000 a year post as a chief executive. This type of sexual abuse and harassment lead to Ms Beadle becoming an "outsider" despite being a major shareholder of the company, as the distribution of power and control was seriously threatened with this incident as she had no power even as a CEO to do something about it in the environment that she worked in.

She as an individual was devalued and lost all dignity and moral worth as an individual with feelings and emotions. Her personal freedom was invaded as she was unable to successfully pursue her daily work. By following the consequential approach to analyse this situation by use of utilitarianism which shows that it had a damaging impact on the individual as she had lost her job, and suffered at work by living a lower standard in the working environment. The consequences that the company had were a destruction and negative image portrayed by their treatment to women.

The individual's self interest was seen to be maximized as egoism endorses moral rightness. The performance of the organisation was also affected and productivity was affected as the individual could not perform to the standards that she may have been capable of completing. This incident showed direct discrimination in which it was a deliberate form of discrimination and is ethically wrong. A Kantian approach to sexual abuse and harassment analysis signifies that respect of persons should be taken place and therefore it is a duty within the workforce to show equality.

The duty of the organisation was not carried out effectively as they did not respect all employees equally and an employee was discriminated and unfairly dismissed. The organisation did not give her rights however they did not fulfill their duty to obey company policy by treating everyone fairly in the organisation. Her employee rights (Article 23 paragraph 1) were destroyed as she was unable to "work in a just and favorable condition of work" and lost her "protection against unemployment". The organisation was therefore morally wrong and unethical as they did not analyse carefully the reasons and it was a biased decision.