1800-1900 Europe

The claimed divine right to rule by the British and French was overlooked by popular sovereignty, which changed the government and social order in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Enlightenment challenged this “divine right” and made the monarchy responsible for the people. In France and America the people were being heavily taxed and revolutions started taking place. In these countries and time periods the people were fighting for freedom of worship and freedom of expression.

For so long the Church and government worked together the force of an imperial rule and people started to ask why. The demand for political and social equality was enforced in the Enlightenment. In France, the National Assembly formed by the third state in 1789 demanded a written constitution for popular sovereignty. When the monarch king and the first state declined this proclamation the French revolution broke out. Unfortunately only the temporarily rule of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity was enforced until the classic ruling of a monarchy was taken place by Napoleon Bonaparte.

The American Revolution influenced this French revolution and the ideas of the Enlightenment. In England, a monarchy rule was highly taxing the American colonies that were fast developing. The people in the colonies got tired of being taxed and having no say or vote in what the decisions are made in England. The American revolution starting with many protests such as the Boston Tea Party and the Acts such as the Stamp and Sugar act. The British eventually gave up and the declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.

These two powerful ruling societies have been powerhouses in the world for centuries. For most of the time the rule has been the same and hierarchical monarchies stayed present until questions were not be answered when a new liberal thinking came to be. The social order changed in that the lower classes have more of a say in government. (traditions and encounters chapter 29 outline) 2. The steam engine and the cotton gin were two technological innovations in the industrial revolution that created urbanization in America, but was also an uprising of slavery and child labor.

The steam engine powered many inventions like the sewing machine and the railroad travel. These all brought people together to work in a city. Before the steam engine life was very simple in that every thing was done the “old fashion way”. With the new inventions taking place factories were being made to increase the production of items. When the factories with many job openings occurred, people fled into cities and lived there so they could work. With the industrial revolution urbanization was taking place but slavery was increasing tremulously.

With the invention of the cotton gin, big cotton plantations were growing rapidly and the need for slaves stayed parallel with that rate. This time caused the dehumanizing act of slavery to increase. The revolution also created a huge social class that was characterized as the working and lower class. This is the turning point where people were rich or poor. The Industrial Revolution was a time for great success and changed the world. It also created a specific social class and influenced slavery. Urbanization for America started at this time and is a huge part of the United States history.

(Traditions and Encounters chapter 30 outline) 3. Although the set ideas of Capitalism and Communism are different in ways that they work as a whole verses as separately and creates a poor class instead of one middle class, they have some common traits such as they both have mass production of standard articles and create migration for the work of products. Capitalism is when the governments economic and political systems are controlled by private owners for profit. Communism is when all business are publicly owned and prices are set by the government.

In Capitalist societies such as the United States, monopolies control prices to undercut other or smaller business. In Communism there is a central and controlled price given by the government. This makes it so that there is just one middle class society instead of different social classes in a capitalistic society. These two are both based on the production of goods. Either if it is profit for one man or profit for all, the production of goods is created with the urbanization that it produces. People will come in and work, not depending on which government it is.

Both governments have many differences and have caused much controversy throughout the past centuries. Although they are so different, they are both based off of the same idea of mass production and urbanization. (Pg. 824-825) 4. Great Britain, American, and France wanted to establish global imperialism by controlling domestic affairs by protecting investments abroad, sought out to guarantee free trade and resources, and sought to diffuse social tension and inspire patriotism by focusing public attention on foreign imperialist ventures.

All three countries were doing it for the same political, social, and economic reasons. The political motives were to control governments and insure a constant trade and a well-rounded safe country. Imperialism to curtain countries protected sea-lanes and harbors, which made international affairs easier. A political imperialistic power was also a bragging right to show that your country has what it takes. The economic motives were to guarantee free trade and to absorb themselves in natural resources.

Many indigenous people such as the Indians or the Africans were pushed back and taken over just for the resources they live upon. These motives were easily fulfilled and were pursued by all three nations and they redefined relationships with these people being taken over. Cultural motives were often lead in theory of making the weaker nation seem in need of help. European leaders would frequently organize colonial exhibitions where the subject people would display dress, music, and customs for tourists to win support for imperialist policies.

This made the conquering nation look as if they were doing a favor and that it was an honor to help and share their culture. Imperialism was a seen by all the dominant countries in the past centuries. The outcomes of the imperial actions still show today; or example the Indian movement across America or the dominant number of whites in South Africa. Britain, America, and France shared all the motives for imperialism political, cultural, or economical. (Pg. 910)